Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a treatment for infertility mostly used as a part of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help couples conceive. In ICSI, single sperm is directly injected into each of the retrieved eggs through micromanipulation equipment rather than general infusion as part of normal IVF. Once the embryo/s are formed, it is placed directly inside the mother’s uterus.
IVF and ICSI are very similar in the sense that in both treatments eggs and sperm are retrieved for external fertilization using artificially clinical techniques. However, in ICSI, specific sperm cells are injected into the egg as against general IVF where sperm and eggs are mixed freely together.
as a first step, the ovaries of the mother are stimulated with medicines to help the growth of follicles in the eggs. Post this the response of the ovaries and final maturation of the eggs is closely monitored.
the mature eggs are retrieved within 35-38 hours under sedation.
motile and healthy sperm are selected for insemination.
the eggs are surrounded by cumulus cells which are removed through delicate enzymes so that they can be finally prepared for insemination.
Most healthy sperm is injected into the matured egg.
the eggs are tested next morning to see if they got fertilized or not.
the embryo, which is chosen for transfer, is passed through the cervix into the uterus through transfer catheter. Normally one embryo is transplanted however in some cases transfer of more than one embryo happens.
After 2 weeks of embryo transfer, pregnancy blood test is done to see if the ICSI procedure has been successful or not.