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Laparoscopy is a modern day diagnostic surgery where diagnosis and operation is done with minimal incision (in the belly)using a thin rod called laparoscope attached with a high definition camera. Laparoscopy is normally used to observe, diagnose, and treat source and emergence of a problem in abdominal, pelvic or reproductive area (i.e. uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes or cervix). Women with infertility issues may be prescribed laparoscopy to detect anomalies such as endometriosis, adhesions, fallopian tube blockage or fibroid issues.

Laparoscopy is suggested when certain problems in the abdominal or reproductive area cannot be detected through diagnostic procedures such as Ultrasound (Medical scan to create images of inside the body through high frequency sound waves), Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI (radiology technique to produce images of the body through radio waves) or Computed Tomography scan CT (X ray technique to produce parts and structures of body). Laparoscopy is done primarily for:

  1. Laparoscopy is helpful to conduct a biopsy of abdominal and pelvic organ to find the source of anomaly(or a particular disease detection).
  2. Examining and treating problems such as endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, fibroid removal or pelvic inflammatory disease.
  3. Finding infertility factors in a woman due to conditions such as cysts, adhesions, fibroids or certain specific infections.
  4. Checking if cancer (abdominal or pelvic)has spread inthe body.
  5. Fixing hernia (bulging of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening) problems.
  6. Complete or partial removal (resection) of organs such as uterus, spleen, gallbladder, appendix or ovaries, based on infected region.
  7. Diagnosing the cases of unexplained pelvic pain.
  8. Examining the damage to internal organs after an accident or injury.
  9. Examining and treating the abnormal growths such as tumors in the abdomen and pelvic areas.
  10. Tubal ligation (surgery for fallopian tubes)

This is a unique development in recent times where robots are used to assist in laparoscopic procedures. Under this procedure, a surgeon completes the procedure through robotic arms, which are in turn managed with the use of consoles. The robotic arms are used for holding a 3D vision camera and in handling the surgical instruments.

The procedure of Laparoscopy is minimally invasive and takes around a couple of hours to complete depending on the nature of diagnosis or treatment.

  1. The patient is kept under general anaesthesia during the surgery to avoid complications and panic moments.
  2. The surgeon makes a small incision in the belly (0.4-0.6 inches).
  3. Low cervix response in mother.
  4. Carbon dioxide is pumped inside with the help of a tube through the incision made which helps to inflate the abdomen. This allows the surgeons to examine the internal organs precisely.
  5. A Laparoscope is inserted with the help of the tube. Laparoscopeis basically a thin rod with a high definition camera, which helps displaying the images of inside the body on a television monitor. This helps in diagnosing the cause of any abnormality in the abdomen or pelvic area.
  6. If there is a medical condition requiring surgery (removal of appendix, uterus, etc.) then a longer cut is made in the abdomen and surgery is performed using surgical instruments.
  7. The incision is sealed with stitching and medicines.
  8. Patients are usually able to take a release in a couple of days depending on the nature of treatment.

The recovery time from Laparoscopy depends on the nature of the illness or the laparoscopic procedure. Laparoscopy carried out for diagnostic purposes, take much shorter time of up to 48 hours to recover. However Laparoscopic surgery to treat a medical condition may take p to a week’s time.

  1. Only wear loose fitted clothes (preferably of satin or cotton) before and after (up to 48 hours) the Laparoscopic surgery.
  2. Avoid taking anticoagulants or blood thinners as they can cause bleeding after the surgery.
  3. Inflammatory drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen can cause issues with bowel movement and effect pelvic area.
  4. Vitamin K is prohibited before a laparoscopy surgery as it leads to blood clotting.
  5. Avoid sex and junk foods up to three weeks after Laparoscopy.

Usually, after Laparoscopy one may feeldisoriented with shaking limbs and nausea. However, please don't worry, as these are just common side effects of anesthesia, whichdo pass quickly. Some side effects of Laparoscopy are as follows

  1. Abdominal pain, bloating and discomfort due to gas (CO2) passed inside abdomen during Laparoscopy.
  2. The gas used during Laparoscopy can cause shoulder pain along with a short spell of breathing problem.
  3. Irritated nerve endings do occur at times.
  4. Some may experience infection such as swelling, redness, itching, and discomfort in the stitches after Laparoscopy.
  5. In rare cases ofmajor laparoscopic surgeries (Laparoscopic Myomectomy, Laparoscopic Uterian suspension etc.) one may experience organ puncture and injuries such as abdominal wall hematoma, umbilical wound infection, umbilical hernia, and diversion of blood vessels.
  6. People may experience Hypothermia (decreased body temperature due to more absorption of heat) due to surgical humidification therapy (use of heated and humidified carbon dioxide for inflating the abdomen) during laparoscopic surgery.
  7. Risk of intra-abdominal adhesion (Fibrous bands extending one organ to another through scar tissues) is off course there after laparoscopic surgery.
  8. One may find problem with urination (frequent or scanty) after laparoscopic surgery.