Hyponatraemia.Electrolite imbalance.Hypovolumic shock Mechanism of Action
- Sodium chloride is the major extracellular cation
- It is important in electrolyte and fluid balance, osmotic pressure control and water distribution as it restores sodium ions. It is used as a source of electrolytes and water for hydration, treatment of metabolic acidosis, priming solution in haemodialysis and treatment of hyperosmolar diabetes
- It is also used as diluents for infusion of compatible drug additives.
OralChronic salt-losing conditions Adult:As modified-release preparation: 2.4-4.8 g (40-80 mmol sodium) daily accompanied by suitable fluid intake. Up to 12 g daily may be necessary in severe cases OralProphylaxis of muscle cramps during routine haemodialysis Adult:As modified-release preparation: 6-10 g every dialysis session Oral hygiene Adult:Used as mouthwash Nasal congestion Adult:0.9% used as nasal drops or spray. Child:0.9% used as nasal drops IntravenousReplacement of fluid and electrolytes Adult:As 0.9%, 3% or 5% solution: Dosage depends on age, wt, clinical condition and laboratory determinations of the patient. Dose to be administered via a large vein, with care taken to prevent infiltration IntravenousHypernatraemia Adult:As 0.9% solution: Dosage depends on age, wt, clinical condition and laboratory determinations of the patient. Dose to be administered via a large vein, with care taken to prevent infiltration Irrigation of the bladder, eye, general skin and wound cleansing Adult:0.9% solution is used Side Effects
Reduced salivation and lachrymation Fever Hypernatraemia Thirst Warnings/Precautions
Hypertension, heart failure, peripheral or pulmonary oedema, impaired renal function, liver cirrhosis, preeclampsia Maintain adequate water intake Pregnancy. Inj of 3 or 5% sodium chloride solution should be given via a large vein at a rate not exceeding 100 ml/hour Monitor fluid balance, serum electrolytes and acid base balance espcially during prolonged treatment Caution when used in patients who are receiving corticosteroids or corticotropin