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MESA (Micro-Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) is an open surgical sperm retrieval technique to treat male infertility problems such as Azoospermia (total absence of sperm in ejaculation) and reproductive tract blockage due to various genital surgeries including vasectomy. Under this procedure, operating microscopy is used and sperm retrieval is done directly from the epididymis (reproductive tube connecting the testicles to the sperm carrying vessels) of the male genitalia. MESA is normally used to assist pregnancy for childless couple through Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) such as IVF (In-Vitro Fertilization).
This technique is used when the male partner has issues with producing sperm due to reasons such as:
When there is zero sperm found in the ejaculated semen in a Semen Analysis Test or Sperm Culture Report, one may be suggested MESA. Azoospermia is of two kinds -
However, MESA is not suggested in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia (NOA) as it is difficult to find sperm in the epididymis when sperm production is impaired due to genetic factors in NOA.
MESA is suggested when the male has Oligospermia (low sperm concentration in the semen).
MESA is helpful when the male has previous issues of genital surgeries such as Vasectomy (male sterilization surgery for permanent contraception) or inguinal Hernia Repair (surgery to repair hernia in the groin)
Men diagnosed with Cystic fibrosis (genetic disorder affecting lungs), which leads to infertility problems by affecting the development of vas deferens-tube carrying the sperm to the testicles.
MESA is required when the male has problem with blockage of seminal tissues or vas deferens due to cysts.
Men with history of testicular cancer can opt for MESA to have children without any risk.
MESA procedure is very minimal and less invasive. The entire procedure of sperm retrieval through MESA takes only 30-45 minutes. MESA is conducted as follows -