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    Fertility Basics (10 Videos )

    What is Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET)?

    Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) is done after embryos are prepared and transferred after few menstrual cycles. In a Fresh IVF cycle, embryos are prepared and transferred into uterus during the same cycle. There are various benefits of FET over a fresh cycle embryo transfer; firstly the success rate in case of women over the age of 35 years was quite high as compared to the ones who had a fresh cycle embryo transfer. Secondly, the patients that had elevated levels of progesterone hormone before egg retrieval. This has inspired the fertility experts to think if other patients can benefit from the freeze- all approach.

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    Anovulation and Fertility: what you need to know

    Anovulation is one of the most common reasons for infertility in women along with PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome). Anovulation is a condition when a woman doesn't produce a follicle; she therefore cannot mature an egg and cannot release it. This is different from PCOS, as women with PCOS can produce follicles that do not mature and get accumulated in the ovaries. Anovulation can be there for women who menstruate regularly as well while women with PCOS who have irregular cycles have high possibilities that they do not ovulate. There are however, ways to check for anovulation through day 21 progesterone test, thyroid and prolactin hormone test and ovarian hormone (AMH) test to tell what can be the causing factor behind anovulation. It can be treated if properly taken care of with the prescribed treatment from a gynecologist.

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    Understanding Fibroids and Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Fibroids that are compact uterine tumors that grows in as many as 80% women during reproductive years. Seen in different sizes, these muscular tissue growth found inside and outside of the uterus can be both large and small. Women with fibroids may have fewer to severe symptoms like heavy menstrual bleeding, severe pelvic pain and frequent urination. At times, a woman with fibroids might not show any symptoms at all. These can come to light during a regular pelvic exam or procedures like biopsy, ultrasound or MRI. It can be monitored over a period of time by the physician to ensure that the fibroid/s doesn’t continue to grow. For the large fibroids, specific treatment methods are recommended for a patient. There are various treatment approaches for fibroids depending on their sizes and location. Laparoscopic myomectomy is a minimally invasive technique that is used to surgically remove a fibroid by making few incisions in the abdomen. Anti-hormonal medication is used to shrink fibroids or completely treating them. Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE) treats fibroids with a short recovery time.

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    How to treat Poor Ovarian Reserve (POR)

    A Poor ovarian reserve is a result of various conditions like advanced maternal age, or genetic issues. It means a dwindling egg count in the ovaries and poor quality of the eggs. Treating a poor ovarian reserve can be difficult due to the fact that there are few means to correct it. Because of the fact that fresh eggs cannot be produced, only option left is to improve the quality of the existing egg reserve to be used in fertilization. For those women that have their ovarian reserve depleted due to genetic conditions, not much can be done about it yet for those who have fast aging ovaries, lack in male hormones called androgen. For such cases, male hormones like DHEAS, testosterone and also growth hormone are given to improve quality of eggs depending upon the specific cases.

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    Understanding Polycystic Ovary Syndrome symptoms and treatment

    PCOD or PCOS are one of the most common health problems which affect women especially during their reproductive ages. There are certain symptoms which clearly indicate that the woman is suffering from PCOD. It is not necessary that every woman will have the same set of symptoms, if they are diagnosed with PCOD. The most common symptoms of PCOS include heavy bleeding, irregular periods, and excess hair growth in the body. Woman who have PCOS usually suffer from acne and skin breakout problems due to increase in the male hormonal levels in the body. Increased weight is also prominent in women who are suffering from PCOS. Women who have PCOD are at higher risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and heart diseases in some severe cases. There are different ways to treat symptoms of PCOD. Some of the proven ways include change in lifestyle, usage of birth control pills, and medications such as metformin's as well. Women are advised to lose weight and reach their ideal BMI to prevent any further degrading of their condition. Therefore, PCOS and PCOD needs to be treated with care to get it control. If you are planning for a baby, then you need to make sure that your PCOS and PCOD condition is brought into control, so that they can conceive a baby.

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    What are the different Types of Blocked Fallopian Tubes?

    A number of blockages present in fallopian tubes contribute to a large number of infertility cases in women. Proximal tubal blockage is a type of blockage that occurs due to infections such as a PID or Pelvic Inflammatory Disease that causes scar tissues and adhesions in the tubes. Tubal blockage is easily detected in a dye test that shows filling but no spilling of the dye from tube/s. A minimally invasive surgery called fimbrioplasty is done to regain tubal patency; here the opening is treated with laser to open it. Third cause of tubal blockage is tubal ligation, a surgery done for birth control and has both the tubes tied. Tubal ligation surgery is a microsurgery that involves a small incision in the belly and is usually followed by a quick recovery.

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    Early Menopause - Signs, Precautions and Treatments

    Early menopause is a serious health issue in women and has potential health complications if left untreated. It is obvious for a woman to suspect an early menopause if she experiences lighter menstrual periods with increasing length of the cycle or does not menstruate at all and gets symptoms like hot flashes, night sweats and irritability when she is still under the age of 45 years. Early menopause is not only about infertility but in addition to that it also means many other serious health problems that can cause a woman to have a cardiovascular disease, bone disease like osteoporosis and damage to brain leading to dementia due to the fact that female sex hormones protect these vital organs in various ways. The risk is elevated for those women who have their ovaries removed before the age of 45 years. Early menopause if not addressed in time may affect sexual desire, overall mood and may cause pain while intercourse because of reduced estrogen in the vaginal tissues. Hormone therapy is known to reduce all these complications and improve sexual functioning. Importantly, early menopause therapy along with estrogen therapy is safe and can be continued till the natural age of menopause that is around 51 years.

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    What is Endometriosis?

    It discusses Endometriosis, a common cause of infertility and other complications in a woman’s health. It is a condition that causes the uterine tissues to grow outside of uterus. Women suffering from endometriosis can have severe to no symptoms at all. Symptoms like excessive pain during or in between periods, pain while passing urine and stool, and dyspareunia (painful sex) are strong indicators of the condition. Surgery and biopsy are the methods that can definitively diagnose endometriosis. Impact of this health condition is not clear on fertility despite many infertility cases being presented with endometriosis. Scarring of the uterine tissues can be observed in a severe case of endometriosis while in mild ones it can affect the ability of implantation or embryo development. Treatment options for endometriosis consist of both medicinal and surgical. Medicinal option is mainly based on hormones and may include combination birth control pills or progesterone hormone pills. The surgical correction can come in form of both, minimally invasive surgery like a gynae laparoscopy or an open surgery for endometriosis.

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    How Do Birth Abnormalities of the Uterus Affect Pregnancy?

    Congenital abnormalities of the uterus also called as the birth abnormalities of the uterus have a great impact on the fertility of a woman. It doesn't stop a woman from conceiving but causes problems during pregnancy in form of premature births, preterm labor and miscarriages. A Bicornuate uterus or a heart shaped uterus is the one that has the upper part of the uterus infused making it take the shape of heart, hence the name heart shaped uterus. The shape in itself does not cause infertility but is responsible for causing miscarriages, preterm labor and delivery or breech. It may also be the case that the uterus is divided into two halves that are capable of performing their functions independently, making it look like two uteri. The other abnormality that’s found in patients experiencing recurrent miscarriages is a Septum meaning a partition inside the uterus which is made up of scar tissues. This abnormality increases the risk of a miscarriage by 44% and can be corrected through a minor hysteroscopic surgical procedure. An additional uterine horn in case of a unicorn uterus needs surgical removal to avoid an unviable pregnancy.

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    What is Poor Ovarian Reserve (POR)?

    An ovarian reserve is the capability of a woman to produce good quality eggs in desired numbers. A good ovarian reserve is the prerequisite of getting pregnant and there are different parameters that are used to assess ovarian reserve in a woman that are her age, morphological features, and previous medical history. Ultrasound and certain blood tests are important in determining a woman’s ovarian reserve. Age turns out to be the most crucial aspect in deciding about the egg reserve of a woman as the reserve keeps on depleting with age. With a tendency to consume eggs at different paces, every woman may have different egg count at a same age. Ovarian reserve is defined with the help of two aspects, advanced maternal age (>40 years) and decreased number of eggs or oocytes with conventional IVF stimulation. In addition, lesser number of follicles seen on an ultrasound scan or a poor value of AMH (Anti Mullerian Hormone) also indicate a poor ovarian reserve.

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