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Embryo Transfer or ET is the last step performed during In vitro Fertilization treatment. ET is done in a transfer room near a laboratory and it can be similar to a Pap smear procedure. This process involves a speculum being inserted into the vaginal cavity so that the catheter is inserted smoothly and the embryo is gently placed inside uterus. The entire procedure takes place under the ultrasound guidance for ensuring accuracy. ET technique has developed over time and unlike past when a number of embryos were transferred to ensure a decent success rate, only single embryos are transferred at present.
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Different stages of embryo development begin with Zygote right after the fertilization in fallopian tubes. Zygote is the single cell that undergoes the first cell division called as mitosis. It is followed by four and eight cell stages acquired through the day 3 of the development process. The embryo, once in Morula stage, which is the 16 cell stage at day 3, becomes strong enough to get implanted in the uterus yet the blastocyst stage reached by day 5 is usually preferred for embryo transfer in IVF treatment. The early blastocyst has zona pellucida as the our wall of the embryo, embryo blast that is the inner cell mass, trophoblast that forms the inner cell lining of the embryo and a blastocyst cavity that gives rise to alimentary canal. Trophoblast gives rise to placenta during the development of the blastocyst into a fetus during the later stages.moreless
Frozen Embryo Transfer or FET is an ART technique that allows women to have a control over their fertility. It enhances the chances of an IVF cycle when there is a heightened risk of ovarian hyperstimulation, a condition when the ovaries get inflamed and the hormonal mismatch between the ovaries and the uterine lining interfere with the implantation. FET is known to give better results than fresh IVF cycles.moreless
There are two types of Embryo Transfer (ET) Fresh and Frozen Embryo transfer. Embryos formed after fertilization in an IVF cycle which are transferred into uterus during the same cycle, is known as fresh embryo transfer. Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) is done after embryos are prepared and transferred after few menstrual cycles. There are various benefits of FET over a fresh cycle embryo transfer; firstly the success rate in case of women over the age of 35 years was quite high as compared to the ones who had a fresh cycle embryo transfer. Secondly, the patients that had elevated levels of progesterone hormone before egg retrieval. Also, FET is beneficial in cases when there are excess embryos formed in a cycle (remaining ones can be cryopreserved). It is advantageous when a patient shows high response to the fertility medication like ovarian hyperstimulation so that ET can be delayed accordingly. FET is a good option for those who wish to use their embryos for a future pregnancy. In case of genetic testing, frozen embryos can be kept for the testing purpose before they can be transferred into uterus.moreless