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    wellness

    Normal Blood Sugar Level - Range, Factors, and Effect of Diabetes

    • 11180 views
    • 4.5   (1 Votes)
    Medically Reviewed by Dr. Deepika Tiwari - MS, MBBS on 16 Jul 2019 - Written by Dr. Mamta Pattnayak - MBBS, MD - Grammatically Approved by Dr. Kavita Jaggi Agrawal - MS, MBBS

    Normal Blood sugar level is also known as blood glucose which is an important parameter for good health. Factors determining blood sugar levels are diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia. The risk factors of diabetes are obesity, PCOS, age, impaired glucose tolerance, Gestational diabetes.

    Normal Blood sugar is also referred to as Blood Glucose which is believed to be a necessary parameter for the good health of a person. The blood glucose level refers to the amount of glucose present in our blood. Glucose mainly comes from the food which contains carbohydrates. It’s the main source of energy consumed by the body. Generally, blood sugar level boosts quickly after we eat. The increase of blood sugar level causes our pancreas to release insulin so that the blood glucose levels do not get too high and are used or stored as per the requirement. The high blood glucose level can damage eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. So it is important to maintain a healthy blood sugar level for the human body. Maintaining a healthy blood sugar level is also important for our body’s performance. (1) (2)

    In this article, we will discuss:

    Normal Range for Blood Sugar

    A healthy range of blood sugar in the human body is considered to be 3.9 and 7.1 mmol/L (70-120 mg/dl) for a non-diabetic person. This means that normal blood glucose level in the human body is about 5.5 mmol/L (100 mg/dl), however, the level of sugar in humans fluctuates throughout the day. (3) (4)

    However, too high and too low sugar levels in the human body can cause some very serious problems to their health. So, it is very important to control and balance your normal blood sugar level. To balance or maintain sugar level in a human body, a person is required to check his/her blood sugar level on a regular basis. 

    Several Factors Determining Blood Sugar Level

    The Sugar level in blood is based on several factors such as:

    Type and severity of diabetes

    The Sugar level determines the severity, amount and type of diabetes before the treatment is sought. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood and most of them diagnosed it when they are in their 20’s. In this case, a human body makes little or no insulin. Type 2 diabetes is more common and creates the most diabetes cases. In Type 2 diabetes the pancreas doesn't make enough insulin to keep blood sugar level normal. There is another type of diabetes which is called Gestational diabetes. In Gestational diabetes, high blood glucose level increases anytime during pregnancy in women, who is not a patient of diabetes. (5) (6)

    Risk Factors of Diabetes

    If you have Type 2 diabetes then your body can't use the insulin it makes. This is known as insulin resistance. Type 2 generally affects adults, but it can start at any time or phase of your life. The main things that lead to Type 2 diabetes are (7) (8):

    • Obesity or being overweight - Research shows that obesity is a top reason for type 2 diabetes. Due to the rise in obesity among children, this type of diabetes is affecting more teenagers.
    • Impaired glucose tolerance - Prediabetes is a milder form of type 2 diabetes. It can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. If you have impaired glucose tolerance then there’s a strong chance of getting type 2 diabetes.
    • Insulin resistance - Type 2 diabetes often begins with cells that are contrary to the insulin that means your pancreas has to work hard to make sufficient insulin to meet your body needs.
    • Ethnic background - Diabetes is observed more often in Hispanic/Latino Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, African-Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Alaska natives.
    • Gestational diabetes - If you had diabetes while you were pregnant then you had gestational diabetes at that time. This raises your chances of contracting type 2 diabetes later in life.
    • Sedentary lifestyle - If you exercise less than three times a week then you may suffer from diabetes.
    • Family history - In case you have a parent or sibling who has diabetes then also there are chances of having diabetes.
    • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) - Women having polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a higher risk of having type 2 diabetes.
    • Age - If you're over 45 and overweight or if you have symptoms of diabetes then it is advised to talk to your doctor about a simple screening test.

    Apart from Diabetes, Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia are the two main medical conditions that arise due to an imbalance in blood sugar level.

    Two Main Medical Conditions in Blood Sugar level, except Diabetes

    The two main medical conditions in blood glucose level except diabetes are mentioned below:

    1. Hypoglycemia

    Hypoglycemia is caused when the blood sugar levels are low in a human’s body. If Blood Sugar level drops below 70 mg/dl then that medical condition is called hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is common in people who are suffering from diabetes. It is due to taking too much insulin or any other diabetes medicines. Hypoglycemia may also have another lifestyle which is based on various causes such as alcohol, surgery, disease of the pancreas, stomach problems, kidney, etc. (9)

    Symptoms of Hypoglycemia:

    The symptoms of Hypoglycemia are mentioned in the below-provided table (10):

    Early Symptoms of Hypoglycemia

    Shakiness, dizziness, Sweating, Hunger, Irritability or moodiness, Anxiety or nervousness, Headache

    Nighttime Symptoms of Hypoglycemia

    Damp sheets or bedclothes due to perspiration, Nightmares, Tiredness, irritability or confusion upon waking

    Severe Symptoms of Hypoglycemia

    Clumsiness or jerky movements, Muscle weakness, difficulty speaking or slurred speech, Blurry or double vision, Drowsiness, Confusion, Convulsions or seizures, Unconsciousness, Death

    If you have symptoms of low blood sugar then you need expert advice to maintain a healthy and balanced diet. It is also advised to monitor regular blood sugar level.

    2. Hyperglycemia:

    Hyperglycemia is a condition when an enormous amount of blood glucose circulating in the human body. Hyperglycemia is the first signs of diabetes. There are two types of Hyperglycemia which are mentioned below:

    • Fasting Hyperglycemia:  Fasting Hyperglycemia is a condition in which the blood sugar level is greater than 90-130 mg/dl.
    • Post Meal Hyperglycemia: Post Meal Hyperglycemia is a condition in which the blood sugar levels are usually greater than 180 mg/dl. A healthy person’s post-meal blood sugar level generally measures 130-140 mg/dl.

    Symptoms of Hyperglycemia

    The symptoms of Hyperglycemia are 

    • Frequently feeling thirsty
    • Headache
    • Blurred vision
    • Poor concentration
    • Fatigue
    • Weight loss 
    • Frequent urination

    Reason of Hyperglycemia

    Some reasons for having hyperglycemia are:

    • Skipping medicines
    • Eating too many carbohydrates and calories
    • Increased in Stress Level
    • Drinking too much Alcohol

    Hyperglycemia can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, vision problems, kidney disease, and nerve problems in people who are having diabetes.

    To reduce levels in Hyperglycemia in your body, all you need to do is to control your blood sugar level. You can reduce your blood sugar level by following the points mentioned below: 

    • Drink more water - As you will drink an excessive amount of water it will help you remove extra glucose from the body.
    • Exercise - Regular exercise is also helpful in maintaining sugar level and also helps you in keeping fit.
    • Change in eating habits - You need a proper and healthy diet that may reduce the level of blood sugar in the body.
    • Consult your doctor and take medicine on time.
    • Monitor your blood sugar levels regularly.

    Maintaining a healthy blood sugar level is very necessary for human health. Too high or too low sugar levels can lead to various medical conditions but by monitoring it and controlling the sugar levels, you can continue to have a healthy balance of sugar. So, try to keep your blood sugar levels in the normal range to be healthy.

    This article brings to you all the information related to normal blood sugar level, range of sugar level, diabetes, risk factors of diabetes, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. You can contact Elawoman at +918929020600 to get details related to any infertility treatments such as IVF, IUI, MESA, TESA, ICSI or Surrogacy. You can also visit elawoman.com for more info.

    Dr. Mamta Pattnayak

    Written by

    MBBS, MD
    Obstetrician, Laparoscopic Surgeon
    Gurgaon
    Dr. Mamta Pattnayak is a gynaecologist, infertility specialist and obstetrician with illustrious experience of many years. She completed MBBS from SCB Medical college in 1999 and pursued MD in 2003. She is a member of the Association of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Delhi and American Association of Gynaecological Endoscopy. She holds her expertise in PCOD Treatment, Laparoscopic Surgery and Myomectomy, High-Risk Pregnancy Care, Normal Vaginal Delivery. Dr. Mamta Pattnayak is an Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) specialist and is practising at Aro Health in Gurgaon. You can find the contact details of Dr. Mamta Pattnayak at elawoman.com

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    Jan. 30, 2019, 6:34 p.m. 4.5

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