surrogacy

History of Surrogacy

  • 4.7 (6 Votes)
  • 90305 views

Surrogacy has helped couples in having their babies since biblical times and it has evolved a lot since then. With the advancement in medical science, traditional surrogacy was replaced with gestational and commercial surrogacy. When questions were raised over its ethics, legal aspect was associated with surrogacy to safeguard child and surrogate.

History of Surrogacy :
1- Surrogacy in Ancient Times
2- Surrogacy in India

Motherhood is bliss! It is one of the best experiences a woman can have in her lifetime. Giving birth to a child is a valuable moment for women across the world. But, unfortunately, not all women are able to give birth to a child due to some physical complications. The advancement in modern medicine has given a ray of hope to such women. Here comes the concept of surrogacy where other woman carries the baby in her womb for a mother who is not able to carry her child. The concept may sound new to many of us but in reality, surrogacy exists for nearly a century now. Surrogacy always existed in one form or another since biblical times. The history of surrogacy is very interesting and one can get to know about the same from this article.

Surrogacy in Ancient Times

The earliest reference of surrogacy is present in the 'The Book of Genesis'. Sarah, the barren wife of Abraham was unable to carry the pregnancy and hence her servant Hagar was asked to carry her child. The other instances of surrogacy can be found in Native American society where men were encouraged to procreate with a woman other than his barren wife to keep the family line continued. The child which was allowed to stay with the biological mother i.e. surrogate mother in the ancient times. But in the modern era, surrogate mother has no right over the child once he/she is born.

Late 19th Century

The year 1884 saw the first successful artificial insemination and with this achievement, another milestone was added to the history of surrogacy. At that time, the ethical viability of the insemination was questioned but this event pioneered the way for other inseminations to come.

Also, explore our article on the procedure of surrogacy to understand how does surrogacy help infertile couples in completing their family.

Late 20th Century

After a hiatus of 91 years, in 1975, the first ethical embryo transfer was reported. Since then, the surrogacy as a form of reproduction has reached an unprecedented height. In 1976, Noel Keane, a Michigan lawyer arranged surrogate motherhood for a couple. He drafted and created the legal contract to be signed between the surrogate mother and intended parents. It was a case of traditional surrogacy and the surrogate mother didn’t receive any payment for bearing the child. Noel Keane is also referred to as the father of surrogacy. Using his experience, he opened several clinics countrywide and became a pioneer in the history of surrogacy in the United States.

The year 1978 added another landmark in the history of surrogacy when the first baby through IVF transfer was born. Two years later, the first compensated surrogacy agreement was signed between intended parents and a surrogate mother. This surrogate mother was paid $10,000 to carry a child for another couple. Later she regretted her decision and penned her emotions in a book named Birth Mother under the pseudonym Elizabeth Kane.

In fact, many celebrities around the world have utilized the treatment of surrogacy in completing their family. Want to know about these celebrities. If yes, then give a sneak peek to our article on celebrities who used surrogacy.

The Famous Baby M case

The history of surrogacy for the first time saw the inclusion of legal aspects between surrogate mother and intended couple. In 1984, a couple named Bill and Besty Stern hired Mary Beth Whitehead as the surrogate mother. Whitehead was compensated $10,000 for being a surrogate mother. Once the baby was born, she refused to sign over the legal document and took over the custody of the child.

During this traditional surrogacy, Whitehead’s egg was being used. Therefore, she was the biological mother of the baby. It was natural for her to have an attachment with the child and complications arose. She refused to sign the legal contract of surrogacy prepared by the famous lawyer named Noel Keane. Instead in 1986, she filed a legal case against the couple.

The final verdict of this case shocked the entire world, as the court considered this surrogacy illegal. Besty Stern was given the custody of the child and surrogate mother was given visitation rights. Following this verdict, gestational surrogacy became more prevalent where the egg and sperms are taken from the intended couples only. This case in the field of surrogacy made the US government implement some of the stricter laws for surrogacy.

Rise of Gestational Surrogacy

This was the time when the legal case started in 1984 was going on, but then in 1985 the first successful baby was born with the help of gestational surrogacy and couples then started opting for the same from hereon.

Later Stages of Surrogacy (2004 – 2008)

With the dawn of the millennium, the surrogacy became more mainstream and as per an estimate, around 5,000 children were born in the US through the mainstream.

Surrogacy in India

Surrogate mothers are actively taking part in helping couples since decades, but then the utilization of surrogacy is growing due to benefits, which it provides to the couples so that they can conceive their own babies. The history of surrogacy in India comprises of different phases.

  • In the 1800 BC, the first evidence of surrogacy was seen which paved the way for surrogacy.
  • In India, Kanupriya famously known as Durga was born with IVF procedure on October 3, 1978, in Kolkata. This was the time when the couples started looking for the best solutions in the field of artificial reproduction assistance for the birth of babies and forming their happy families.
  • Surrogacy started since that time, but couples need to know that no strict laws were formed with respect to surrogacy at initial stages.
  • In 2002, the commercial surrogacy was made legal in India, which attracted many international couples as well. This boosted India’s economy as well as helped needy couples in completing their family.

After the surrogacy started in India, it has got both the praise and criticism. Surrogacy is seen in many aspects involving legal, social and ethical issues. The commercial aspect of surrogacy was brought into existence to help surrogate mothers in receiving the deserving compensation for carrying the baby of an intended couple in their womb. Also, with the introduction of commercial surrogacy, the couples started valuing the efforts of the surrogate mother as well.

In the past few decades, the demand for surrogacy has increased to a great extent. Couples who were unsuccessful to have their own babies are now able to have their own ones with the help of the procedure of surrogacy.

Thus, the history of surrogacy is much interesting and kept on evolving with several edits and introductions of procedures and laws. If you want to learn more about surrogacy and other infertility treatments, then you can stay tuned to ElaWoman and get to know more about various effective solutions of infertility.

 

Dr. Aanchal Agarwal

About The Author

Obstetrician Dr. Aanchal Agarwal
Delhi

Dr. Aanchal Agarwal is an infertility specialist and gynecologist who has graduated MBBS from University of Delhi in 2001 and then pursued DGO from University of Delhi in 2004. Dr. Aanchal specializes in treating patients with IVF, IUI, High-risk pregnancy care and Normal vaginal delivery procedures. Dr. Aanchal Agarwal is at present practicing at BLK Super Speciality Hospital, Pusa Road, Delhi. You can find more information on elawoman.com

6 Comments

user_img

Trilok Singhla

As my wife was not that young now and the chances of a successful delivery were very less. So we thought surrogacy as a wonderful alternative. This procedure helped us to have our own baby.

Nov. 2, 2018, 12:23 a.m. 5.0

user_img

Ritika Gyani

I think a surrogate goes through a lot of emotional and physical trauma. It is okay that surrogates get paid, but they are also doing a very noble cause which can not be compared with money.

Oct. 26, 2018, 4:15 p.m. 5.0

user_img

Namrata Kakkad

So, surrogacy is a very old practice. Even in India also surrogacy is practiced for a long time.

Oct. 14, 2018, 3:06 p.m. 4.5

user_img

Tejas Vaidhan

There are many legal works associated with surrogacy. Even if you have known the surrogate from the past, then also you can not say that there will be no problems afterward.

Sept. 30, 2018, 10:45 a.m. 4.5

user_img

Gopichand Prakash

I think Bollywood celebrities have made surrogacy more like a fashion trend. It is now more acceptable and has gathered a lot of attention.

Sept. 18, 2018, 7:23 a.m. 4.5

user_img

Somdev Prithu

Aug. 24, 2018, 5:57 p.m. 4.5

View all comments

Leave a Comment

Rating

Disclaimer

The information displayed on this webpage covers general information on several medical conditions, fertility treatments, IVF ICSI, surrogacy procedure, home remedies, and their respective treatments. The exclusive purpose of the displayed information is for the sake of general understanding and it has been collected from open sources which heavily rely on research and laboratory tests. However, the information shared here should not be considered as a medical advice or an alternative to consultation with a registered medical practitioner or licensed healthcare professional.

It is not advised to self-diagnose or treat any medical condition or disease following the information given in this article. We insist you to consult a registered practitioner and never try to replace their advice or discontinue treatment in between by relying solely on the information obtained. External links to different websites as well as videos given on the website serve the purpose of sharing knowledge only. Ela being an Independent Medical Information platform is neither responsible nor guarantees the authenticity, reliability, and accuracy of these videos and websites in any way. We do not intend the information displayed here to be used for a medical emergency, if you seek medical attention for yourself (or any other person with whom you want to share the information with), we advise you to directly get in touch with the hospital or the doctor.

Related Article view all

Surrogacy
5 Best Surrogacy Centres in Mumbai - Best Surrogacy Doctors in Mumbai

The best surrogacy centres in Mumbai are the ones which have high success rates with surrogacy treatments. Some of the best surrogacy centres in Mumbai with excellent medical experts and staff are Saraogi Hospital and IRIS Centre, Madhu Imagine and Fertility Centre, Veda Fertility and Urology Care.

Read More

Surrogacy
Best surrogacy centres in Gurgaon - Success rates, Other Services

Best surrogacy centres in Gurgaon offer excellent services to patients in terms of surrogacy costs, success rates, and efficient medical team and staff. The best surrogacy centres in Gurgaon include Artemis Health Institute, Mayom Hospital, and Max Hospital as per the patient reviews and past treatment records.

Read More

Surrogacy
Top 5 Surrogacy Centres in Noida with High Success rates - Surrogacy Cost in Noida

Best surrogacy centres in Noida offer quality services to patients visiting the centre. Each of the surrogacy centres comprise of well trained medical specialists and staff which yield excellent results for patients. The surrogacy cost in India varies with the success of the hospital and treatments offered there.

Read More

More From Author

In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
Best 9 IVF Doctors in Noida - IVF Success rates, IVF Treatment Cost in Noida

Best 9 IVF Doctors in Noida - IVF Success rates, IVF Treatment Cost in Noida

posted on 24 Aug 2018 4.7/ 5

The best 9 IVF doctors in Noida include Dr. Tulika Sinha, Dr. Sarita Teotia, Dr. Jyoti Mishra, Dr. Shivani Sachdev Gour, and Dr. Richika Sahay Shukla. These IVF doctor...

Read More

Lifestyle
7 Honest Confessions about Big Boobs from Pregnant Women

7 Honest Confessions about Big Boobs from Pregnant Women

posted on 24 Aug 2018 4.7/ 5

Pregnant women face various changes during pregnancy week by week. It is important to note pregnancy symptoms week by week to keep proper care of the body and baby as ...

Read More

Pregnancy
Nutrition intake for Pregnant Women in terms of Calories

Nutrition intake for Pregnant Women in terms of Calories

posted on 24 Aug 2018 4.7/ 5

What to eat during pregnancy is one of the most common questions which a pregnant women enquires from her doctor. Pregnant women diet can be taken from diet chart for ...

Read More

Trending Articles

surrogacy
surrogacy

5 Best Surrogacy Doctors in India

posted on 24 Aug 2018 4.5 / 5(1 Votes)

Find the list of best surrogacy doctors in India who offers the best treatment with the highest success rate. The list has been categorized on the basis of doctors fame, experience, reviews, ratings, and cost. Dr. Mohit Saraogi from Saraogi Hospitals and IRIS IVF Centre and Dr. Kaberi Banerjee from Advanced Fertility Centre top the list of the best surrogacy doctors in India.

Read More

IVF
ivf

Best IVF Doctors in India with Highest Success Rates

posted on 24 Aug 2018 4.7 / 5(3 Votes)

Find here the list of best IVF doctors in India on the basis of Ratings, Success Rate, Services offered, IVF cost packages and available Facilities. Dr. Nisha Bhatnagar, Dr. Kaberi Banerjee and Dr. Anjali A Deval top the list of such IVF doctors in India due to their unique pricing system, popularity and high success rate.

Read More

surrogacy
surrogacy

Top Surrogacy Centres in India with Highest Success Rates

posted on 24 Aug 2018 4.8 / 5(2 Votes)

In this article we bring you the best Surrogacy Centres and clinics in India with Review Ratings, Cost Estimates, and Surrogacy Success Rate to help you make the best choice. Aveya IVF and Surrogacy Centre and Advanced Fertility and Surrogacy Centre tops the list of such surrogacy centres in India due to their low treatment costs, popularity and high success rates.

Read More