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    All you need to know before opting Surrogacy Treatment - Procedure and Cost

    • 4.5   (1 Votes)
    Medically Reviewed by Dr. Deepika Tiwari - MS, MBBS on 30 Mar 2019 - Written by Dr. Smita Sanyal - MBBS, DGO, Infertility Certification - Grammatically Approved by Dr. Kavita Jaggi Agrawal - MS, MBBS

    Surrogacy is basically of two types gestational and traditional and it is not legal in all the countries. It is better to work with an agency or a surrogate lawyer to avoid legal issues. Cost of surrogacy can vary for different countries and it can result in multiple pregnancies. There are several key facts about surrogacy and facts about surrogate mothers themselves that should not be overlooked. Things to Know Before Planning For Surrogacy

    Things to Know Before Planning For Surrogacy

    1. There Are Two Types Of Surrogacy

    Surrogacy can be of two types Traditional and Gestational. In Traditional Surrogacy a woman provides her own egg, which is fertilized by artificial insemination, she carries the fetus and gives birth to a child for the intended mother. Whereas in a Gestational Surrogacy a woman or the genetic mother provides the egg, which is fertilized, and the surrogate mother carry the fetus and gives birth to the child. A gestational surrogate or carrier has no genetic connection to the child. (1)

    Two type of surrogacy

    2. Surrogacy is Not Legal in Some Countries

    Countries such as France, Italy, Germany, Portugal, Spain and Bulgaria prohibit all forms of surrogacy. In countries like Ireland, Denmark, UK and Belgium surrogacy is allowed where the surrogate mother is not paid, or only paid for reasonable expenses. Commercial surrogacy or paying the mother a fee is prohibited. Commercial surrogacy is legal in some states in the US and countries including Russia and Ukraine. People who are planning for surrogacy may go abroad if their home country does not allow surrogacy, or if they cannot find a surrogate. However, the laws may vary, for example, some Australian states have criminalized going to another country for commercial surrogacy, while others permit it. (2)

    3. Altruistic Surrogacy is Accepted in India

    Unlike the U.K., altruistic surrogacy in India is being defined through the tie of kinship, not through the exchange of payment for ‘services rendered’. Here, family and kinship hide the commercial element entailed in seeking a surrogate from among close relatives. According to the new Surrogacy Bill (Regulation) in India, altruistic surrogacy includes contracting a close relative as a surrogate by a heterosexual married couple who have been childless for five years of their marriage. However, altruistic surrogacy also entails the provision that the surrogate is the legal mother of the child, which can be transferred to the parents through a legal process, including adoption. In many countries in Europe, the act of gestation defines motherhood, even though the egg used for the pregnancy through IVF may belong to the couple entering the arrangement. (3)

    4. Working with an agency can actually save time and money.

    While it may initially seem more convenient and cost-effective to work with a surrogate independently, it is important to understand the role an agency plays in navigating potential roadblocks. One can only benefit from the experience and preparation afforded by an agency, their expertise can help one avoid pitfalls such as failed medical testing, legal problems and compatibility issues that might otherwise derail the surrogacy journey. (4)

    5. Psychological Evaluations for Surrogates are Required

    Anthropological studies of surrogates have shown that surrogates engage in various distancing techniques throughout the surrogate pregnancy so as to ensure that they are not emotionally attached to the baby. (5) Surrogate mothers sometimes intentionally try to foster the development of emotional attachment between the intended mother and the surrogate child. (6)Surrogates who work with an agency are generally counseled by the agency to become emotionally detached from the fetus before giving birth. Personality differences between intended mothers who commission a genetically related or unrelated baby and surrogates who gestate and relinquish have been unexplored in the UK. (7) Some surrogate mothers describe feeling empowered by the experience. (8) Although surrogates generally report being satisfied with their experience as surrogates, there are cases in which they are not. Unmet expectations of surrogates are often associated with dissatisfaction, not feeling a certain level of closeness with the couple while others did not feel respected by the intended parents. Some surrogates experience emotional distress as a surrogate mother. There may be a lack of emotional support and access to therapy through the surrogate process. (9) Some surrogate mothers have reactions that include depression when surrendering the child, grief or even refusal to release the child. (10)

    6. Sometimes Surrogacy Can Involve Religious Issues

    Different religions take different methods to surrogacy, often related to their stances on assisted reproductive technology (ART) in general. For example in Catholicism techniques that entail the dissociation of husband and wife, by the intrusion of a person other than the couple (donation of ovum or sperm, surrogate uterus), are gravely immoral. (11)

    7. Surrogate Lawyers Are Available

    Foreign policies on surrogacy often cause difficulty in obtaining the child. Some of the surrogacy countries usually prefer that the citizens and children remain within national borders. For those that do permit these arrangements, there may be added restrictions such as documents, time frames and official proceduresthat must be satisfied. At such times a family lawyer is needed that understand both - how these situations work in one’s own country as well as the country the mother lives in to have the best chances of success. (12)

    8. Citizenship

    The legal status and citizenship of the children resulting from surrogacy arrangements can be problematic. The Hague Conference Permanent Bureau identified the citizenship of these children as a pressing problem in the Permanent Bureau 2014 Study. (13) (14)

    9. Surrogacy Costs Can Vary

    Surrogacy costs can range anything between 60,000 and 1.2 lacs. Surrogacy costs in Bangalore and Mumbai can go up to 5 lacs. The charges for surrogacy are, however, unspecified. The costs can include the IVF process and compensation for the carrier. The cost of transferring an embryo is not expensive; the cost is more so for paying the carrier to carry the pregnancy. (15)

    Surrogacy cost

    10. Surrogacy Contracts are Real

    Surrogacy contract ought to be signed before the embryo is implanted in the womb of the surrogate mother. This agreement has to go beyond the amount of money to be paid to the surrogate mother and at what stages. The contract should include life insurance cover for the surrogate mother. One needs to think of every possibility in the contract - for example, who will take care of the baby in case of the divorce or sudden death of the intended parents? Who will provide for financial support for the child in the surrogacy agreement or mention the name of a trusted relative who can take care of the baby in case of such eventuality? A legally binding contract with these details will hold in the court of law. (16)

    11. Surrogacy Can Result in Multiple Pregnancies

    There is also the issue of multiple births. In surrogacy, as In Vitro Fertilization, there is a good chance that the woman will conceive more than one baby but the maximum allowed is a twin pregnancy. In case there is more than one baby, doctors go for selective embryo reduction. Which means if it is a multifetal pregnancy, say triplets or quadruplets, the doctors may abort one or more fetus. The parents and the surrogate mother are made aware of this at the onset and are counseled about it. (17)

    12. Surrogacy May Involve Some Risks 

    Although surrogacy, as an ART, offers several advantages and is being performed in some well-known infertility centers, (18) surrogate mothers might face some risks. Some reports indicate that surrogate mothers experience multiple pregnancy, preterm labor, pregnancy-induced hypertension, disturbance of glucose metabolism, an elective cesarean section that need specific prenatal care during pregnancy or hysterectomy because of placenta accreta or rupture of uterus. (19) (20). Moreover, studies have shown that handover of the baby after delivery might cause psychologic stress and promote psychologic problems in surrogate mothers. The surrogate mothers might form a close bond with the baby in prenatal period and therefore, might have an increased risk of postpartum depression and feelings of guilt or anger. (21)

    We hope this article has provided with the information you were looking for. For more information about surrogacy and IVF treatment, please contact Elawoman at +917899912611

    Dr. Smita Sanyal

    Written by

    MBBS, DGO, Infertility Certification, FImCH
    Laparoscopic Surgeon, Hysteroscopic Surgeon

    Dr. Smita Sanyal is an infertility specialist and hysteroscopy surgeon with rich years of experience. She is counted among the most sought-after gynaecologists in Gurugram. She has completed MBBS and DGO from Medical College, Calcutta in 1981 and 1984, respectively. She has also pursued Certificate course on Infertility And Endoscopy from Manchanda Endoscopy Institute in 2013. She is a member of the Delhi Society of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, and Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Delhi (AOGD) and Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecological Societies of India (FOGSI). Her areas of expertise are Normal Vaginal Delivery (NVD), Hysterectomy and Laparoscopic Surgery, High-Risk Pregnancy Care, Intrauterine Insemination (IUI). Dr. Smita Sanyal is an Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) specialist and currently associated with W Pratiksha Hospital in Gurgaon. You can get the contact details of Dr. Smita Sanyal at



    1 Comment


    Mahin Sundararajan

    Dec. 11, 2018, 12:11 p.m. 4.5

    Leave a Comment



    The information displayed on this webpage covers general information on several medical conditions, fertility treatments, IVF ICSI, surrogacy procedure, home remedies, and their respective treatments. The exclusive purpose of the displayed information is for the sake of general understanding and it has been collected from open sources which heavily rely on research and laboratory tests. However, the information shared here should not be considered as a medical advice or an alternative to consultation with a registered medical practitioner or licensed healthcare professional.

    It is not advised to self-diagnose or treat any medical condition or disease following the information given in this article. We insist you to consult a registered practitioner and never try to replace their advice or discontinue treatment in between by relying solely on the information obtained. External links to different websites as well as videos given on the website serve the purpose of sharing knowledge only. Ela being an Independent Medical Information platform is neither responsible nor guarantees the authenticity, reliability, and accuracy of these videos and websites in any way. We do not intend the information displayed here to be used for a medical emergency, if you seek medical attention for yourself (or any other person with whom you want to share the information with), we advise you to directly get in touch with the hospital or the doctor.

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