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When typhoid fever symptoms are noticed, widal test is performed. Widal test report is used to find out intensity of enteric fever. Typhoid fever treatment is performed in the first trimester of pregnancy. Typhoid fever diet is advised to the patients for early healing and recovery from the condition.
1- A Widal test is done to examine whether the patient is suffering from typhoid or paratyphoid fever. Doctors recommend it usually when the patient has suffered from continuous fever or increased body temperatures along with severe body pain and fatigue. Widal test positive means the intervention of severe infection inside the body and this can adversely impact couples who are trying to conceive. (1)
2- Most of the people tend to find out what is Widal test and why it is done? Widal test is prescribed to check the assimilation of bacteria into the blood stream. This test is done on the serum of the patient. (2)
3- Typhoid is caused by a bacterium - Salmonella Typhimurium. This gets transmitted through humans. It is passed through human faeces. It enters the body and rests in the intestinal tract for about 7-8 days and then finds a way to enter into the blood stream. (3)
4- Worldwide, 22 million cases are registered with people suffering from typhoid, as per research.
6- Widal test examines the formation of antibodies by salmonella typhi along with O and H antigens. Its actual results are seen after the tenth day of the onset of disease.
Widal Test Report
- What are the Widal test reports? These are generated to find out the intensity of typhoid or enteric fever. The human serum (undiluted) is taken in different quantities and is reacted with antigens (diluted) to check the agglutination. This agglutination shown in the widal test report is the clumping of particles, especially in blood grouping.
- A Widal Test Report before conceiving can help in planning a child. Typhoid can have severe effects on female fertility as the body turns more vulnerable to such infections.
- Widal Test report depends upon the titre of O and H antigens that are being tested with Salmonella Typhi. Widal test interpretation shows the level of bacterial ingestion inside the body. (5)
- Widal test positive means the situation is alarming and must be consulted with a doctor, immediately.
- The antibody titration done in the widal test shows the highest dilution and it provides a visible form of the clumping formed.
Widal Test Interpretation and Normal Values
- As per research, pregnant women, especially in their first trimesters are at high risk of catching typhoid. It can be due to some environmental or physiological changes or low immunity. Widal test interpretation can help in safe pregnancy.
- Widal Test is carried out through various methods. One of its interpretations are- A set of 5 or 8 tubes are formed for reacting salmonella typhi with Antigens O, H, AH and BH.
- Using a micropipette, a little amount of undiluted serum 80, 40, 20, 10, 5 microlitres is dispensed on to a row of circles for each set. An amount of 0.03 ml of diluted antigens is stirred and observed for a while.
- The observation is done for all the sets forming Salmonella typhi O, Salmonella typhi H, Salmonella typhi AH and Salmonella typhi BH. (6)
Here is a chart that shows the Widal Test Interpretation and Widal test normal values.
|Amount of Antigen||1 Drop||1 Drop||1 Drop||1 Drop||1 Drop|
According to a Widal test interpretation,
- O antibodies appear on 6 to 8 days and H antibodies appear on 10 to 12 days from the onset of the disease.
- Widal test positive means that the patient is suffering from Typhoid fever or enteric fever and is caused by both the antibodies formation.
- As per a study on Widal test, 82% of patients suffering from typhoid fever have more than or equal to 1:60 Salmonella H titre in their widal test report. 58% of patients have more than or equal to 1:160 Salmonella O titre in their widal test report. This is more than widal test normal values.
- Merely, 4% of the healthy and non-typhoid patients have more than or equal to 1:80 titre. It is a wide test of normal value and does not require any medication.
- If somebody plans for normal delivery, the Widal test report is taken under consideration as the body needs to be infection-free and much healthier.
- Widal test positive means the patient is infected with salmonella typhi bacteria. It represents the existence of typhoid fever. Widal test interpretation in the widal test report may indicate other infections caused by Salmonella typhi. (7)
SOURCES AND REFERENCES:
- ^ Widal Test | LapCrop Labcorp.com, 18 June 2019
- ^ Widal Test - Lab Tests Online Labtestsonline.org, 18 June 2019
- ^ Typhoid - WHO Who.int, 18 June 2019
- ^ Pregnancy - Wikipedia En.wikipedia.org, 18 June 2019
- ^ Widal Test Report Microbiologyinfo.com, 18 June 2019
- ^ What Are the Normal Values for a Widal Test - Doctor Ndtv Doctor.ndtv.com, 18 June 2019
- ^ Interpretation of the Widal Test in the Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 18 June 2019
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