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Emergency contraceptive pills include I pill, Unwanted 72, Preventol, Tpill - 72, Nextime pill, and No-will pill. These contraceptive pills in India are highly effective for couples. Oral contraceptive pills are the most efficient birth control methods and prevent unwanted pregnancy.
For many women and couples who do not want unwanted or unplanned pregnancy, emergency contraceptive pills are the best choice. Taking these pills within the specified hours of unprotected sex has helped many couples to avoid getting pregnant. As it is easy to use and is effective, the number of women using emergency contraceptive pills has increased tremendously during the past few years. (1)
Emergency contraception pills also called postcoital contraception or morning after pill, are one of the best birth control methods after unprotected sex. It works by altering a woman’s hormone levels. The high burst of synthetic hormones interferes with natural hormone production released during ovulation or pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive pills prevent pregnancy by disrupting the growth of an egg or by interfering with ovulation. Some contraceptive pills also obstruct transport of sperms to the vagina, preventing fertilization, or implantation. Emergency oral contraceptive pills are usually to be used within 72 hours unprotected sexual intercourse but some pills can also be used within 5 days after unprotected sex. It is considered as a backup plan for during unavoidable conditions rather than consistent use. (2)
There are a variety of emergency contraceptive pills but the three most common types are:
- Emergency pills that contain only progestin hormone or levonorgestrel
- Pills that contain antiprogestin called ulipristal acetate
- Combined pills that contain progestin and estrogen
Emergency Contraceptive Pills Containing Progestin
Progestin-only pills work by stopping or delaying the release of the egg from ovaries. The pills may also alter the lining of the uterus to prevent egg implantation or reduce the ability of the sperm to bind to an egg. It can reduce the risk of getting pregnant by 88 percent. Women have few or no side effects using these pills for emergency contraception. Usually, these pills are taken as one tablet containing 1.5mg levonorgestrel but some generic forms may also contain two tablets, each containing 750 mcg of levonorgestrel. A single tablet is effective up to 72 hours after intercourse or a split dose of two tablets can be administered separated by 12 hours. However, emergency pills containing progestin does not work as well in women who weight more than 75 kg or have a body mass index (BMI) of more than 25. (3)
Emergency Contraceptive Pills Containing Ulipristal
The second type of emergency contraceptive pill contains anti-progestin called ulipristal acetate which is found to be highly effective without causing any side effects. It may also cause changes in the lining of the uterus, preventing implantation. These pills are considered to be more effective than levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills. Women can take these pills five days (120 hours) after unprotected sex but it can also be taken earlier to improve effectiveness. These ECPs contain about 30 mg of ulipristal and work by blocking the natural hormone progesterone from occupying its receptor site in the body. After taking ulipristal pills, it is advised to wait at least five days before continuing any other hormonal birth control methods such as skin patches or injection. Emergency Contraceptive Pills containing ulipristal are not recommended if a woman is already pregnant or if she thinks she is pregnant as it can be potentially harmful to an unborn baby or cause birth defects. The pills should also not be used by postmenopausal women or the ones who have just started their periods. Therefore, buying these pills requires a prescription from a doctor. (9)
When the two types of pills, mentioned above, are not available, women can use daily-use oral hormonal birth control methods as emergency contraception, although not recommended. These pills contain both the hormones progestin and estrogen which can cut the chance of getting pregnant by 75 percent but are more likely to cause side effects like nausea and vomiting. Each dose contains at least 100 mcg of estrogen and .50 mg of progestin. Like regular birth control pills, it prevents ovulation. It thickens the mucus inside the cervix which makes it hard for sperms to travel towards an egg. Multiple pills are taken in two doses with one dose within 4–5 days of unprotected sex, followed by the other one which is 12 hours later. (4)
Other Emergency Contraceptive Pills
Some emergency contraceptive pills contain small doses of mifepristone. These pills are highly effective with few side effects but are only available in few countries. Some of the best Emergency Contraceptive Pills available in India are:
- I pill
- Unwanted 72
- Nextime pill
- No-will pill
How to Use?
Before taking any form of emergency contraceptive pills, it is recommended to take the advice of a doctor. If you are not ready to visit a doctor, you can take these pills by yourself but one should remember to take the doses in the correct amount. Other medications should also be avoided before or after taking these pills as it might not be as effective then. Even though these pills are cost-effective, it is not advised to use emergency contraceptive pills as your only protection against pregnancy. Moreover, these pills do not provide protection against STD's or STI's. (5)
When to Use?
ECP is a safe and effective way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. It can be administered up to five days after unprotected intercourse or can be taken immediately. (8)
Women can take these pills if:
- The condom broke or slipped off, and he ejaculated inside the vagina
- She forgets to take birth control pills, or apply contraception patch
- The diaphragm or cap slips out of place, and he ejaculated inside of the vagina
- She miscalculated her safe days
- She doesn’t use birth control methods
- She had unprotected vaginal sex
Effectiveness of Emergency Contraceptive Pills
Recent studies found that if a hundred women have unprotected intercourse using birth control pills, about eight will become pregnant and if the same number of women use emergency oral contraceptive pills, only one is said to become pregnant. Emergency contraceptive pills are one of the best birth control methods and taking within the first 24 hours may increase effectiveness up to 95 percent. (6)
Possible Side Effects of Emergency Contraceptive Pills
Emergency contraceptive pills, also known as morning after pills, are not found to have any long-term or serious side effects. In most cases, women who take ECPs experience no complications. However, some of the EC pills can cause minor side effects. About half the women who take ECPs keep feeling nauseated and about 20 percent of women experience vomiting. Due to such medical reasons, some practitioners advise taking these pills with food or with an anti-nausea medication.
Progestin-only EC pills usually only cause a few side effects. Most of these symptoms resolve once the drug is out of the system. The most common side effects include:
EC can also affect the menstrual cycle and cause periods to be one week early or late. If a woman finds her period to be late for more than a week, she may want to take a pregnancy test. Some women who take emergency contraception may have light vaginal bleeding. This usually ends within three days. However, if bleeding lasts longer than three days or becomes heavier, it may be a sign of some problem. (7)
If you want any consultation on birth control pills or infertility issues, you can contact Elawoman at +917899912611. We are committed to helping infertility patients find the best doctors and hospitals. Furthermore, we also provide zero percent of medical loans for patients who need financial help.
SOURCES AND REFERENCES:
- ^ Emergency Contraception - World Health Organisation Who.int, 28 May 2019
- ^ Emergency Contraceptive Pill - The Plano Weekly Planoweekly.com, 28 May 2019
- ^ Progestin Only Emergency Contraceptive Pills Ec.princeton.edu, 28 May 2019
- ^ Combined Pill - NHS Nhs.uk, 28 May 2019
- ^ Which kind of emergency contraception should I use Plannedparenthood.org, 28 May 2019
- ^ How Effective Is Emergency Contraception Nhs.uk, 28 May 2019
- ^ Side Effects of Emergency Contraceptive Pills Ec.princeton.edu, 28 May 2019
- ^ When to Use Emergency Contraception Ec.princeton.edu, 28 May 2019
- ^ Ulipristal Acetate for Emergency Contraception Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 28 May 2019
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