Top Indian Cities
  • Delhi
  • Kolkata
  • Mumbai
  • Bangalore
  • Hyderabad
  • Lucknow
  • Pune
  • Ahmedabad
  • Chennai
  • Patna
  • Jaipur
  • Indore
  • Gurgaon
  • Surat
  • Bhopal
  • Nagpur
  • Varanasi
  • Noida
  • Kanpur
  • Ranchi
  • Amritsar
  • Udaipur
  • Ludhiana
  • Srinagar
  • Agra
  • Chandigarh
  • Allahabad
  • Bhubaneswar
  • Vadodara
  • Guwahati
  • Rajkot
  • Ghaziabad
  • Faridabad
    Top Global Cities
  • Abu Dhabi
  • Athens
  • Atlanta
  • Auckland
  • Bangkok
  • Bialystok
  • Bogota
  • Brno
  • Cancun
  • Cebu City
  • Chania
  • Chiang Mai
  • Chittagong
  • Colombo
  • Depok
  • Dhaka
  • Doha
  • Dubai
  • Eldoret
  • Gdansk
  • Gdynia
  • Haifa
  • Ipoh
  • Jakarta
  • Johor Bahru
  • Kathmandu
  • Katowice
  • Khon Kaen
  • Kiev
  • Klang
  • Kota Damansara
  • Kuala Lumpur
  • Limassol
  • London
  • Lviv
  • Madrid
  • Makati
  • Malacca
  • Manila
  • Mexicali
  • Mexico City
  • Minsk
  • Monroe
  • Moscow
  • Nairobi
  • New York City
  • Odessa
  • Padang
  • Penang
  • Peterborough
  • Phnom Penh
  • Phuket
  • Portland
  • Prague
  • Quezon City
  • Selangor
  • Singapore
  • Slupsk
  • Taichung City
  • Taipei
  • Tbilisi
  • Tehran
  • Tel Aviv
  • Thessaloniki
  • Tirana
  • Warsaw
  • Wroclaw
  • Zhubei
  • Zlin
    pink loader
    male fertility

    Teratozoospermia - Know its Causes, Types and Teratozoospermia Treatment

    • 4.9   (6 Votes)

    Teratozoospermia is the most common infertility problem in men. Teratozoospermia causes include genetic defects, side effect of cancer treatment, diabetes, stress. Teratozoospermia treatment include various fertility treatments such as IVF ICSI, IUI, and implementing lifestyle changes.

    Since ancient times, infertility is considered as a problem related to only women. No matter what, the medical checkup of men was not even considered important to establish the cause of infertility. But with changing times, the role of male fertility has been greatly studied and its importance is reemphasized in defining fertility. This has also caused a change in the mindset of people who can now understand that infertility is not restricted to females only.

    Now, it is a general fact that trouble in conceiving can be due to a number of issues concerning sperm parameters of the male partner like poor sperm count, motility or low quality. One of such issues is Teratospermia or Teratozoospermia. This article throws light on various questions associated with the condition concerning its occurrence, types, treatment and what it is about.  (1)

    What is Teratospermia or Teratozoospermia?

    Teratospermia is defined as an abnormal sperm morphology. It is also called as Teratozoospermia. This disorder causes males to produce abnormally shaped sperm. The sperm produced are defective either at head, mid piece or tail. Teratospermia is considered as one of the causes of male infertility. To check the morphology of sperm, semen analysis or seminogram is done with the use of dye test to see the shape of sperm under a microscope. These tests reveal about the shape and give a definite percentage of the morphological defects found in sperms. (2) (3)

    Causes of Teratospermia

    Many a time it is difficult to establish a specific reason for teratozoospermia. It is taken for granted that morphological modifications that happen during the end stage of spermatogenesis (process of sperm production) are responsible for teratozoospermia.

    • It is also noticed that treatments like chemotherapy and radiation therapy also have a role in the sperm production process hence leading to the onset of teratozoospermia. Men are advised to have their semen sample frozen if they wish to become father in future after the disease is treated completely.
    • Then there are certain drugs that can interact with hormones produced in the body like FSH, testosterone and GnRH to cause changes in the sperm production process resulting in incomplete maturation. This is another reason of teratozoospermia in men. (4)

    causes of teratospermia

    There are quite a few factors that lead to Teratospermia. The causes of abnormal shape of sperms are different for person to person and sometimes it is quite difficult to assess the reason behind this disease. Some of the most common reasons identified till date that can contribute to the occurrence of teratozoospermia are:

    • Genetic (5)
    • Cancer treatments like chemotherapy or radiotherapy
    • Testicular disorders
    • Unhealthy diet
    • Obesity
    • Stress or any infections
    • Tobacco, drugs or alcohol etc.
    • High fever
    • Traumas or other testicular problems
    • Varicocele
    • Meningitis
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Semen infections
    • Alcohol and drug abuse

    Some of the reasons of Teratospermia can be cured like if you keep a check on your diet plan, leave unhealthy habits, reduce stress level etc. With such corrective measures, sperm quality can improve, leading to the better chances of curing infertility. (5)

    Types Of Teratospermia

    Before discussing the treatment of teratozoospermia, let us learn about the defects in sperm cells that can be found at any part of its body like head, mid piece or tail. It can also occur with all or in combination of any two type of abnormality. The normal sperm has an oval shaped head and a long tail whereas abnormal sperm has head or tail defects such as mis-shape head or double tail etc. (6)

    types of teratospermia

    Sperm morphology determines the type of Teratospermia and its grade of severity like: Normal sperm Morphology > 14%

    • Mild teratospermia- here the normal sperm morphology value ranges between 10 – 14%
    • Moderate Teratospermia- here the normal sperm morphology value is between 5-9%
    • Severe Teratospermia- here the normal sperm morphology value is less than 5% 

    These types show the percentage of normal or abnormal sperm cells in a semen sample, but in order to know the defects in sperm, Teratospermia index is used. In this way, we can identify the number of defects in each sperm. (7)

    The formula used in index is – TZI =(C+P+Q)/X, where 

    • C=head defects
    • P=midpiece defects
    • Q=tail defects
    • X=total no. of abnormal sperm

    Interpretation of TZI

    • TZI =close to 1 means one part defective
    • TZI =close to 2 means two part defective
    • TZI =close to 3 means three part defective
    • TZI indicates which type of defect is the most frequent one.

    Interpretation of TZI

    Treatment of Teratozoospermia

    Since the type of defect is identified, the next step is to move on to the treatment. The treatment of Teratospermia is possible. With proper treatment a man can achieve normal pregnancy, keeping in mind that other sperm parameters are normal. Sperm count and motility are the key points to be kept in mind in this case.

    1. First treatment is Lifestyle changes –  A man with Teratospermia needs to give up his unhealthy habits such as cigarette smoking, alcoholic drinks or drugs if taking. (9)

    • One should opt for a healthy lifestyle which involves regular exercise, eating balanced diet etc. One should take food which is rich in antioxidants & amino acids to boost the sperm quality.
    • Omega -3 fatty acid rich food, vitamins are required for healthy sperm. One can also take vitamin supplements too. This is a natural treatment for teratozoospermia.

    2. Fertility treatment is also possible in order to achieve a pregnancy with poor sperm morphology. 

    • Advanced medical reproductive technology makes it possible for a man with teratospermia to have a baby. (10) 
    • In case of mild teratospermia, IUI, which is Intrauterine insemination can be used as a treatment option, however, it is important to know that sperm count and motility should be normal as well as the female partner should also be medically fit.
    • In case of moderate & severe teratospermia- IVF/ICSI can be chosen as a treatment option. IVF or In-vitro fertilization is a type of assisted reproductive technology where eggs and sperms are fertilized in laboratory and once fertilized, the resultant embryo is transferred to the woman’s uterus. Whereas, Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is the process by which a selected sperm cell is inserted directly into an ovum. This eliminates the difficulty involved in sperm reaching and penetrating the egg.

    It has to be noted that teratozoospermia condition is a reversible one. The likeliness of getting treated is more if the causing factors are temporary in nature, which include high fever or a stressful event. If the morphological changes visible in sperm continue to reflect in the second analysis report, which is usually taken after few months, there is a good possibility that there are other associated diseases as a contributing factor. In a scenario where it appears to be occurring due to genetic reasons, teratozoospermia can turn out to be a very serious situation.

    With the comprehensive knowledge on teratospermia, this article covers all the relevant aspects of the disease. Apart from knowing the causes and ways of prevention, the treatment methods for Teratospermia can help you find your way. You can contact ElaWoman for their guidance regarding the detailed process of getting the treatment to achieve pregnancy without any hassles. Proper medical as well as mental assistance is provided to both the partners in order to achieve a healthy pregnancy.





    Surbhi Panwar

    My husband had teratozoospermia and we have to undergo IVF ICSI procedure to conceive a baby.

    Oct. 12, 2018, 3:42 p.m. 5.0


    Jignesh Patel

    I underwent sperm analysis test and found my sperm morphology is very poor. Is this the reason my wife is unable to conceive?

    Oct. 10, 2018, 1:02 p.m. 5.0


    Shakeel Arora

    I think bringing changes in lifestyle is not gonna improve sperm morphology because it is somehow genetically linked. One need fertility treatment to have a baby with teratozoospermia.

    Oct. 1, 2018, 2:45 a.m. 5.0


    Aniket Sharama

    I hope my sperm morphology is fine.

    Sept. 28, 2018, 11:34 p.m. 5.0


    Kaniska Kakkar

    Oh my god! I did not know even males can have such issues. I will try to improve my sperm quality because it is a matter of dignity.

    Sept. 28, 2018, 9 a.m. 5.0


    Vajresh Surabhi

    Sept. 24, 2018, 11:57 a.m. 4.5

    View all comments

    Leave a Comment



    The information displayed on this webpage covers general information on several medical conditions, fertility treatments, IVF ICSI procedure, home remedies, and their respective treatments. The exclusive purpose of the displayed information is for the sake of general understanding and it has been collected from open sources which heavily rely on research and laboratory tests. However, the information shared here should not be considered as a medical advice or an alternative to consultation with a registered medical practitioner or licensed healthcare professional.

    It is not advised to self-diagnose or treat any medical condition or disease following the information given in this article. We insist you to consult a registered practitioner and never try to replace their advice or discontinue treatment in between by relying solely on the information obtained. External links to different websites as well as videos given on the website serve the purpose of sharing knowledge only. Ela being an Independent Medical Information platform is neither responsible nor guarantees the authenticity, reliability, and accuracy of these videos and websites in any way. We do not intend the information displayed here to be used for a medical emergency, if you seek medical attention for yourself (or any other person with whom you want to share the information with), we advise you to directly get in touch with the hospital or the doctor.

    More From Author

    Fertility Basics
    Fertility infertility - Signs, Causes, Natural remedies of Fertility Disorders

    Fertility infertility - Signs, Causes, Natural remedies of Fertility Disorders

    posted on 30 Jul 2019 4.9/ 5

    Female infertility is on the rise in the recent times. Some of the female infertility causes include blocked or damaged fallopian tubes, ovulation disorders, pelvic adhe…

    Read More

    Fertility Basics
    Infertility profiling medical tests - Check for causes of infertility

    Infertility profiling medical tests - Check for causes of infertility

    posted on 30 Jul 2019 4.9/ 5

    Infertility profiling medical tests include ESR blood test, Thyroid Function Test, AMH test, Complete Blood Count Test, Prolactin, and LH test. Infertility profiling te…

    Read More

    Fertility Basics
    How is female fertility affected with environmental and occupational factors

    How is female fertility affected with environmental and occupational factors

    posted on 03 Jun 2019 4.9/ 5

    Female fertility is affected with occupational and environmental factors. This includes Lead, Ethylene Oxide, Dibromochloropropane, and Chemotherapy side effects. Medica…

    Read More

    Related Article view all

    Male Fertility
    Most Effective 10 Tips to Increase Male Fertility - Tips to Improve Male Fertility

    The top 10 tips to increase male fertility include maintain healthy weight, consume sufficient nutrients, get rid of alcohol, and get cure of ongoing medical conditions. You can also get required exposure to Vitamin D and quit the habit of smoking. It is essential that you know the reasons of male infertility before you opt for any of the tips and tricks.

    Read More

    Male Fertility
    Ejaculation Failure Causes, and Treatment of Different Types of Ejaculation Disorders

    Ejaculation failure causes are urinary infections, thyroid problems, low testosterone levels and anti-anxiety drugs. Ejaculation disorder treatment includes oral medications, pelvic floor exercises, condoms, and muscle relaxants. Ejaculatory disorders are premature, delayed, retrograde, and anejaculation.

    Read More

    Male Fertility
    5 Yoga Asanas for Erectile Dysfunction - Causes for Erectile Dysfunction

    The causes for erectile dysfunction are stress, obesity, high blood pressure, relationship problems, and anti-anxiety drugs. Yoga asanas for erectile dysfunction are Siddhasana, Pavanamuktasana, Ardha Matsyendrasana, Garudasana, and Shavasana. Each of the yoga asanas offer health benefits to males who have erectile dysfunction issues.

    Read More

    Trending Articles


    Best IVF Doctors in India with Highest Success Rates

    posted on 19 Dec 2018 4.7 / 5(3 Votes)

    Find here the list of best IVF doctors in India on the basis of Ratings, Success Rate, Services offered, IVF cost packages and available Facilities. Dr. Nisha Bhatnagar, Dr. Kaberi Banerjee and Dr. Anjali A Deval top the list of such IVF doctors in India due to their unique pricing system, popularity and high success rate.

    Read More