Book an Appointment
+91-7899912611
in vitro fertilisation (ivf)

Difference Between Cloning and In Vitro Fertilization

  • 4.5 (1 Votes)
  • 14103 views

IVF and cloning are two different procedures of fertilizing an egg outside the uterus. In IVF, an egg is fertilized with male sperm whereas in cloning, nucleus of an unfertilized egg is replaced with DNA of a somatic cell to produce identical organism. Cloning is mostly done for genetic study.

Human cloning and In Vitro Fertilization are two very different reproductive procedures even though some may argue that they are similar by terming them both as artificial reproduction. There may be some similarities like artificial insemination and identical lab procedures but the outcome of these procedures are completely different.

IVF or test tube baby is simply fertilizing the egg with sperm outside a woman’s body. After fertilization, the embryo is placed inside the woman’s uterus, where it continues to develop naturally. IVF babies take their characteristics from each of the parent’s DNA; therefore, the child has genetic similarities of both the parents. In Vitro Fertilization is performed in a series of procedures used to treat infertility or genetic problems and help with the conception of a child. IVF babies take traits from each of the parent’s DNA rather than just being a copy of the donor.

Cloning, on the other hand, is different and more complex than IVF. They are organisms that have exact genetic copies. Cloning is performed when the cells enter into their division phase. In cloning, the nucleus from a healthy egg is removed and replaced with the nucleus from a somatic cell, like skin cells. When the egg is fertilized, the embryo is put back into the womb where it continues to grow. They are individuals with exact genetic copies and every single molecule of their DNA is identical. This offspring is born of a single parent and only carries his or her DNA. Human cloning can also happen naturally, Monozygotic or identical twins being an example. In the case of natural cloning, an individual embryo can give rise to one or more new embryos when they fertilize so an individual woman could give rise to one or more clones.

Reproductive cloning is regarded as a deliberate production of genetically identical individuals. Each newly produced individual is an exact copy of the original. Clones contain identical sets of genetic material and chromosomes in the nucleus of every cell in the body. Therefore, cells from two clones have the same DNA and the same genes in their nuclei.

Biologically, a child from IVF is a unique human while a cloned child is genetically identical to his/her parent.

IVF today is a prevailing procedure raising few ethical problems and genetic problems, while reproductive cloning, is widely regarded as beyond the moral sphere. When a test tube baby is born, the child’s organs are most of the time healthy, but in cloning 90% of the time they fail or the uterus rejects it. Even if the cloning is successful, a large portion of the remaining 10% dies soon after delivery because of health problems. Babies born through IVF do not suffer the same health complications that cloned babies do.
 
There are two ways to make a genetic copy of an organism in a lab: Artificial embryo twinning and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

Artificial Embryo Twinning

Artificial embryo twinning is a relatively less efficient way to make clones. As this technique mimics the natural process that creates identical twins. Natural twins form very early in development when the embryo splits in two. Each half of the embryo continues to grow and divide, ultimately developing into separate, complete embryos. This process is artificially performed in the beginning by In Vitro Fertilization procedure. It is carried out in a contained environment in a Petri dish instead of inside the mother. At a very early stage, the embryo is separated into individual cells, which are allowed to divide and develop. After the embryos are fully developed they are then placed into a surrogate mother, where they finish developing. Since all the embryos come from the same fertilized egg, they are genetically and physically identical.

Artificially embryo twinning

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), also called nuclear transfer, is a different approach than artificial embryo twinning but produces the same result. This genetic engineering process starts with the removal of the chromosomes from a germ egg to create a host. The chromosomes are replaced with a nucleus taken from a somatic cell of the individual to be cloned. This cell could be obtained directly from the individual, from cells grown in culture, or from frozen tissue.

somatic cell nuclear transfer

How does SCNT differ from the natural way of making an embryo?

Embryos have two complete sets of chromosomes. The difference between fertilization and SCNT lies in where those two sets come from.

  • In fertilization, the sperm and egg have one set of chromosomes each. When the sperm and egg join, they grow into an embryo forming two sets of chromosomes, one from the father's sperm and one from the mother's egg.
  • In SCNT, the egg cell's single set of chromosomes is removed. The chromosomes from a somatic cell, which already contains two complete sets of chromosomes, replace it. Therefore, in the resulting embryo, both sets of chromosomes come from the same individual.

Difference between cloning and In Vitro Fertilization

  • IVF is generally performed in cases of infertility in men or women whereas cloning is done to gain information about the nucleotide sequence of the gene or to produce novel compounds.
  • In IVF treatment, the egg from the mother is obtained from the uterus and introduced with the male sperm through the process of insemination while cloning is done be by removing the egg from the mother which is fertilized by the somatic cell of the same individual.
  • IVF is an assisted reproduction procedure that raises a few ethical questions, while cloning, or ‘reproductive’ cloning, is widely regarded beyond moral value as they alter deliberately created.
  • IVF treatment has a higher chance of fertilization as it defines the natural system of reproduction. Cloning, on the other hand, may require many due to complex genetic engineering.

Almost all of the babies born through IVF treatment are healthy and do not have any deficiencies whereas in cloning, 90% of the time the original embryo is at the risk of being destroyed. Even if cloning is successful, a large portion of the remaining 10% cannot make it to become a fetus because of health problems.
Chances of dizygotic twins or fraternal twins are higher in In Vitro Fertilization procedure while cloning is particularly done to produce identical.

Clones are naturally present in the world in form of identical twins but cloning artificially raises too many questions of socio-ethical implication. Many religions and communities also oppose this reproductive cloning. IVF is a much controlled and efficient process of reproduction. It is performed only in cases of infertility therefore, it has moral acceptance. If you want to know more on IVF and surrogacy treatments, cost and fees contact Elawoman at +917899912611. Also, read the advantages and disadvantages of IVF treatments.

Dr. Arti Gupta

About The Author

Laparoscopic Surgeon, Hysteroscopic Surgeon Dr. Arti Gupta
Gurgaon

Dr. Arti Gupta is a skilled obstetrician and gynecologist with vast years of experience. She has acquired MBBS in 1999 and MD - Obstetrics and Gynecology in 2002. She is a member of the Haryana Medical Council and Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecological Societies of India. Her areas of expertise are Normal Vaginal Delivery, In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Hysteroscopy, Laparoscopy, and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. Dr. Arti Gupta has an expertise in Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) and is practicing at Mayom Hospital in Gurgaon. You can get the contact details of Dr. Arti Gupta at elawoman.com

SOURCES AND REFERENCES:

  1. Artificial insemination and infertility treatment artificial insemination, Elawoman - 2017
  2. What are the functions of uterus? uterus, Elawoman - 2017
  3. What is ivf (in- vitro fertilization)? In Vitro Fertilization, Elawoman - 2018
  4. Ivf procedure in six steps In Vitro Fertilization procedure, Elawoman - 2017
  5. Sperm facts - sperm count, how long sperm can live and much more sperm, Elawoman - 2017
  6. How to prepare for your first fertility clinic IVF treatment, Elawoman - 2017
  7. Celebrities who used surrogates surrogacy treatments, Elawoman - 2018

1 Comment

user_img

Pulish Kodanda

Science has really advanced that you can make a clone of a person and you can make babies in the lab. I do not know what strange thing can come up in the future.

Oct. 24, 2018, 6:16 p.m. 4.5

Leave a Comment

Rating

Disclaimer

The information displayed on this webpage covers general information on several medical conditions, fertility treatments, IVF ICSI, surrogacy procedure, home remedies, and their respective treatments. The exclusive purpose of the displayed information is for the sake of general understanding and it has been collected from open sources which heavily rely on research and laboratory tests. However, the information shared here should not be considered as a medical advice or an alternative to consultation with a registered medical practitioner or licensed healthcare professional.

It is not advised to self-diagnose or treat any medical condition or disease following the information given in this article. We insist you to consult a registered practitioner and never try to replace their advice or discontinue treatment in between by relying solely on the information obtained. External links to different websites as well as videos given on the website serve the purpose of sharing knowledge only. Ela being an Independent Medical Information platform is neither responsible nor guarantees the authenticity, reliability, and accuracy of these videos and websites in any way. We do not intend the information displayed here to be used for a medical emergency, if you seek medical attention for yourself (or any other person with whom you want to share the information with), we advise you to directly get in touch with the hospital or the doctor.

Related Article view all

In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
When and Why Would IVF be Recommended?
Dr. Mukta Kapila
Dr. Mukta Kapila 4.5 (1 Votes)

When and Why Would IVF be Recommended?

With the advancement of science and technology, it is now possible for a couple to have a child through in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Usually conditions like blocked or damaged fallopian tube, male infertility and advancing age leads to infertility issues. These may render a couple infertile, and doctor may suggest IVF treatment.

Read More

In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
IVF Cost in Bangalore
Dr. Neeta Gupta
Dr. Neeta Gupta 4.5 (1 Votes)

IVF Cost in Bangalore

IVF cost in Bangalore starts from Rs. 110,000 while IVF with ICSI is between Rs. 1,65,000 to 1,60,000. IVF cost in Bangalore depends on the type of IVF treatment, IVF doctor and on infrastructure of the IVF centre. Cost is relatively lesser for natural cycle IVF as compared to Induced Cycle IVF.

Read More

In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
Fresh Embryo vs Frozen Embryo Transfer in IVF
Dr. Rashmi Vyas
Dr. Rashmi Vyas 4.5 (1 Votes)

Fresh Embryo vs Frozen Embryo Transfer in IVF

Multiple studies have been conductedto understand whether frozen embryo transfer (FET) has a better success rate over fresh IVF cycle embryo transfer or not. Explore in-depth understanding of both types of embryo transfers for your in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and choose the best based on your own fertility condition.

Read More

More From Author

Fertility Treatments
What are the Chances for IVF Treatment Success?
Dr. Arti Gupta
Dr. Arti Gupta 4.8 (6 Votes)

What are the Chances for IVF Treatment Success?

A number of factors can impact the result in an IVF cycle. Hence on...

Read More

In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
Cost of Test Tube Baby and Procedure
Dr. Arti Gupta
Dr. Arti Gupta 4.5 (1 Votes)

Cost of Test Tube Baby and Procedure

A baby who is conceived by In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is called a...

Read More

Trending Articles

surrogacy
surrogacy

5 Best Surrogacy Doctors in India

Find the list of best surrogacy doctors in India who offers the best treatment with the highest success rate. The list has been categorized on the basis of doctors fame, experience, reviews, ratings, and cost. Dr. Mohit Saraogi from Saraogi Hospitals and IRIS IVF Centre and Dr. Kaberi Banerjee from Advanced Fertility Centre top the list of the best surrogacy doctors in India.

Read More 4.5 (1 Votes)

IVF
ivf

Best IVF Doctors in India with Highest Success Rates

Find here the list of best IVF doctors in India on the basis of Ratings, Success Rate, Services offered, IVF cost packages and available Facilities. Dr. Nisha Bhatnagar, Dr. Kaberi Banerjee and Dr. Anjali A Deval top the list of such IVF doctors in India due to their unique pricing system, popularity and high success rate.

Read More 4.7 (3 Votes)

surrogacy
surrogacy

Top Surrogacy Centres in India with Highest Success Rates

In this article we bring you the best Surrogacy Centers and clinics in India with Review Ratings, Cost Estimates, and Surrogacy Success Rate to help you make the best choice. Aveya IVF and Surrogacy Centre and Advanced Fertility and Surrogacy Centre tops the list of such surrogacy centres in India due to their low treatment costs, popularity and high success rates.

Read More 4.8 (2 Votes)