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What is Laparoscopy?

  • 4.9 (5 Votes)

Laparoscopy a type of Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), is a surgical diagnostic or therapeutic procedure that is used to examine the organs inside the abdomen especially the female reproductive system with an aid of a camera. It is advantageous over traditional open surgery as it allows rapid recovery, less pain, smaller scars and a much lesser hospital stay compared to a normal Surgery.

What is Laparoscopy?

Laparoscopy Surgery is an effective procedure for the diagnosis of various problems and disorders associated with the female reproductive system. Laparoscopic surgery can be diagnostic as well as operative. During this procedure, a small cut is made in the lower abdomen to diagnose and operate on internal organs.

Mostly, it is used to diagnose the reproductive tract of a female. Therefore, it is also known as reproductive laparoscopy. This procedure is basically carried out with the help of the modern technologies in the clinic of the gynecologist or a hospital. It is a low risk procedure. Laparoscopy is also suggested when a woman is suffering from an unexplained fertility. Let’s proceed further and get acquainted with the tools used in the laparoscopy surgery.

What is a laparoscope?

A laparoscope is a tube like fiber optic instrument with a light source and a camera, which is inserted through an incision in the abdominal wall. It is used to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs. Various tubes can be pushed through the same incision or other small incisions permitting the introduction of probes and other instruments.


The vision inside the reproductive organ of the individual is seen in the form of a clear picture on the video monitor. This helps the surgeon to find out the status of the organs and the surgeon can proceed accordingly with the medical procedure. One of the biggest benefits of the laparoscopy surgery is that it does not require any kind of open surgeries, which were earlier, required earlier before the invent of laparoscopy surgery.

Why is laparoscopy performed?

Laparoscopy can be performed to diagnose or operate any issues in female reproductive system, urinary bladder or digestive system. We will discuss about the role of laparoscopy in each of these systems.

Gynaecology:  Laparoscopy is done in the study and the treatment of the conditions affecting the female reproductive system. Most of the reproductive system problems and disorders lead to the reduction of the chances of getting pregnant in the natural way. So, if a lady wants to conceive and has one or more problems in the reproductive organs, then it is essential to get these problems treated at the right time.

Reasons of diagnostic laparoscopy:

Diagnostic laparoscopy is performed when the patient suffers from the following mentioned cases:

  • Unexplained pelvic pain
  • Unexplained infertility
  • A history of pelvic infection

Diagnostic Laparoscopy can help in diagnosing the following problems:

  • Blocked or damaged fallopian tube can occur in women due to infection or ectopic pregnancy. This leads to difficulty in the progression to a successful pregnancy. Blocked tubes can be diagnosed with the help of laparoscopy.
  • Endometriosis leads to the development of the uterine tissue outside the uterus organ. This type of disorder is more common in the women who have increased levels of infertility. It is usually benign in nature. With the help of laparoscopy, the surgeon is able to find out the presence of the external endometrium lining.


  • Excessive pain at the time of sexual intercourse makes it essential for the physician to advice for a reproductive laparoscopy procedure.
  • Uterine Fibroids can also be detected at the time of laparoscopy. If required, fibroids can also be removed during diagnostic laparoscopy.
  • Ovarian cysts and tumors can also be easily detected and treated with the help of laparoscopy. Although these conditions can be diagnosed with an ultrasound scan also, but laparoscopy gives a better picture of the internal reproductive organs. Moreover, it also makes it possible to treat those issues at the same time while diagnosing.
  • Ectopic Pregnancy needs to be terminated with laparoscopy.
  • Pelvic abscess is pus or fluid in the fallopian tubes or ovaries. This can also make a woman infertile. Laparoscopy helps in removing such pus and fluid from the tubes or ovaries.
  • Pelvic adhesionsare nothing but scar tissues inside the female reproductive system due to which organs such as tubes and ovaries stick with each other making the women infertile.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease can be identified by laparoscopy. Pelvic inflammatory disease causes inflammation in the internal organs, which can result in pelvic pain, painful urination and intercourse. Such conditions can be diagnosed well with laparoscopy.
  • Reproductive cancers can easily be detected and confirmed with laparoscopy. Sometimes, endometrial scratching and uterus lining biopsy are also done through laparoscopy.

Operative Laparoscopy is performed in the following cases:

  • Uterus removal
  • Removal of ovaries
  • Removal of ovarian cysts
  • Removal of fibroids
  •  Removal of adhesions
  • Reversal of tubal ligation

Reversal of tubal ligation

  • Treatment of prolapsed uterus

Gastroenterology:Laparoscopy is also performed for the study and treatment of the conditions affecting the digestive system.

Reasons of Gastroenterology Laparoscopy

  • Removal of the parts of intestine
  • Removal of gall bladder
  • Search for the causes of persisting abdominal pain

Urology:Laparoscopy is used in urologyfor the study and treatment of the conditions affecting the urinary system:

  • Nephrectomy
  • Adrenalectomy
  • Pyeloplasty
  • Lymphocele
  • Varicocele
  • Renal biopsy

Cost of Laparoscopy Surgery

The cost of laparoscopy surgery can vary from Rs. 35,000 to Rs. 70,000 depending upon the clinic and the medical condition. You should consult a concerned doctor before commencing the procedure. You should also discuss the procedure thoroughly with your doctor.

Preparation before a laparoscopy surgery

Preparation of the patient depends upon the kind of surgery that is to be performed. One may need certain imaging tests before the procedure. Doctor will ask you to fast for at least 8 hours or take an enema before the procedure. It is important for the doctor to know what medications you are on, as certain medications might be required to stop before the procedure.

  • Anticoagulants as well as non-steroidal antibiotics are given to the patients prior to the commencement of the laparoscopic procedure. Your doctor will provide you a customized medicine prescription.
  • Dietary supplements are prescribed to the patients before the procedure. This will provide the required nutrients, which get missed out during the 8 hours of fasting.
  • Also, you concerned doctor will perform some of the tests which include blood tests, urine analysis, chest X-ray as well as electrocardiogram. MRI or CT scan can be done based on the case as well as the opinion of the doctor. These tests provide a better visual guide before starting the laparoscopy procedure.

How is laparoscopy done?

It is always preferred that the laparoscopy procedure is performed at the hospital under the guidance of laparoscopy surgeons. This ensures that the laparoscopy procedure is performed in an appropriate manner.

procedure of laparoscopy

  • Laparoscopy is carried out under general anesthesia, so the person does not feel any pain during the procedure. The surgeon makes one or more small incisions in the abdomen through which a laparoscope and small surgical tools are inserted into the abdomen. This makes it easier for the surgeon to look around in the abdomen and operate. A tube is also inserted into the abdomen to pump out the gas.
  • Carbon dioxide gas is filled in the respective area. This helps in the clear view of the reproductive parts and changes, which have occurred in the system.
  • Nowadays, finer instruments are also inserted along with the laparoscopic tube to ensure that the parts of the reproductive system are seen in a better manner. The surgeon can also view the presence of cysts, fibroids, scar tissue and adenoids in a clear way with the help of the accessory instruments.
  • Inside the cervix, the surgeon injects a biocompatible dye. Then, the fallopian tubes are viewed clearly on the video monitor. If required, then the surgeon cuts out a piece in case of endometriosis and views it under the microscope.
  • Once the procedure is completed, the gas is let out of the patient’s abdomen, incisions are closed using stitches and a dressing is applied.
  • You may either go home on the same day of the procedure or you may need to stay at the hospital overnight, depending upon the extent of the procedure and your doctor’s advice.

In this way, the procedure of the reproductive laparoscopy is accomplished. You need to ensure that your follow the instructions of your doctor so that proper diagnosis can be made and the required treatment procedure can be commenced as soon as possible.

Post Laparoscopy Procedure

After the procedure, one may feel a little sore around the cuts.

You may also experience some pain in the shoulder. The pressure of the gas in your abdomen can cause such pain. This can persist for 2-3 days. You should always ask your doctor if you feel any thing unusual in your body.

Complications of laparoscopy:

Laparoscopy is a commonly performed procedure and serious complications following the procedure are extremely rare.

Minor complications:

  • Infection
  • Little bleeding and bruising around the incision
  • Having a feeling of nausea or feeling sick

Major complications (Rare)

  • Damage to any organ like bladder or bowel, resulting in the loss of organ failure.
  • Damage to any major artery.
  • Complications arising due to the use of carbon dioxide that is used during the procedure, leading to gas embolism (a gas bubble entering your veins or arteries)
  • An allergic reaction because of general anesthesia
  • Pulmonary embolism (development of a blood clot in a vein, specifically in a vein of lower limb), can ultimately lead to the blocking off the blood supply in the lungs.
  • Adhesions can also form in the abdominal walls sometimes.
  • At the time of the laparoscopy procedure, the surgeon removes a section of the skin to access the organs in the reproductive system. This can lead to the itching or irritation of the skin around the area of incision.

Patient conditions that can cause increase the risk of complications:

  • Any kind of an abdominal surgery done in the past
  • Obesity or being very lean
  • Extreme endometriosis
  • Existing chronic bowel disease
  • Pelvic infection

Advantages of laparoscopy over open surgical procedure:

  • Less blood loss and thus reduced need of blood transfusions
  • Smaller incision, shorter recovery time, less post operative scarring
  • Less pain
  • Shorter duration of hospital stay
  • Reduced chances of contamination as there is lesser exposure of the internal organs to the external environment

Disadvantages of laparoscopy over open surgical procedure:

  • Surgeon has a limited range of motion at the surgical site.
  •  Poor perception of depth.
  • Use of tools to manipulate the tissue rather than the direct use of hands makes it difficult to judge how much force is being applied, which increases the chances of damaging the tissue.
  • Some surgeries turn out better for the patient when the area can be opened up, allowing the surgeon to see the entire area, surrounding organs, and to better address the issue at hand. In such cases open surgeries are an advantage.

If you are eager to know the best laparoscopy centres in India along with their cost and doctors, visit Laparoscopy in India. Also, get to know the facts, which can hinder your chances of cnception.

Dr. Sheetal Pandey Tejwani

About The Author

Gynecologic Surgeon, Laparoscopic Surgeon Dr. Sheetal Pandey Tejwani

Dr. Sheetal Pandey Tejwani is an Infertility Specialist, Gynecologic Surgeon and Obstetrician, located in Mumbai and having an experience of almost a decade. Her alma mater is B J MEDICAL COLLEGE in Pune from where she completed her MBBS and MS in Obstetrics and Gynaecology in 2007 and 2009, respectively. In the following year, she pursued her DNB in Obstetrics and Gynecology. She received her Post Doctoral Fellowship in Reproductive Medicine from Krishna IVF Vizag and Nadkarni IVF Centre, Surat in 2013. She is the member of 3 different associations i.e. Indian Society of Assisted Reproduction (ISAR), Indian Medical Association (IMA), and Association of Medical Consultants. Her area of expertise includes Tubectomy/Tubal Ligation, Hysterectomy (Abdominal/Vaginal), Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), Caesarean Section and In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF). She is a consultant in Veda Fertility And Urology Care, Mira Road and is a visiting consultant in Wockhardt Hospital, Mira Road, Mumbai. You can get the contact details of Dr. Sheetal Pandey Tejwani at


  1. How often one should have sex to get pregnant? sexual intercourse, Elawoman - 2018
  2. Laparoscopic surgery cost for infertility cost of laparoscopy surgery, Elawoman - 2018
  3. Symptoms of fallopian tube blockage fallopian tubes, Elawoman - 2018



Unnati Yadav

I was advised to opt laparoscopy surgery and now I can really make up my mind for this. Thanks for sharing.

Oct. 6, 2018, 11:09 a.m. 5.0


Ragini Sahdev

Since the chances of damaging tissues are there, but it can always be fixed. It's a better way to treat laparoscopy than the open method.

Sept. 12, 2018, 4:26 p.m. 5.0


Sangida seikh

Good to know about the latest surgery. I will share this for public awareness.

July 31, 2018, 6:22 p.m. 5.0


Nakul Verma

My maternal aunt recently underwent laparoscopy for her uterus removal. She was telling the process was one day and operation did not take much time.

June 2, 2018, 3:15 p.m. 5.0


Prabhakar Gaikwad

The laparoscopy procedure helped us get a clear view of my wife's internal status. The cost of the procedure was also very affordable for us and pocket-friendly.

May 23, 2018, 5:20 p.m. 4.5

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