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PCOS or PCOD – Cause, Symptoms, Treatment And More

  • 4.7 (5 Votes)
  • 11525 views

Get all the necessary information on what is PCOS or PCOD along with symptoms of PCOS, how PCOS is treated, and what causes PCOS/PCOD and Treatment options for PCOS in this article.

PCOS/PCOD (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/Disease) is a major concern for women with infertility issues. It is due to the rising concern and awareness in the global community, that we bring you this article which may help you understand this triggering issue in detail.

What is PCOS/PCOD (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/Disease)?

PCOS or PCOD is a condition found in women in which their sex hormones(produced by ovary/s) called estrogen and progesterone are out of balance. This imbalance leads to various physical changes such as growth of ovarian cysts in ovaries. These cysts result into anovulation and infertility. Also, in PCOS, a woman’s body starts producing excess levels of male sex hormones (androgens) as compared to the amount a normal female ovary/s. So, PCOS/PCOD by altering hormones affects a woman’s menstrual cycle, fertility health, blood sugar levels, cardiac health, and physical appearance.

What causes PCOS/PCOD?

The exact reason, which causes PCOS, is still unknown. Most of the time the factor leading to PCOS/PCOD is considered to be genetic and hereditary. Often women diagnosed with PCOS have a history of PCOS in either of her parent’s side or on both.Also, overproduction of male hormones and rising insulin levels in a female body can be a contributing factor for PCOS. To your information, an excess level of insulin often leads to high androgen level which in turn contributes towards PCOS/PCOD.

Symptoms of PCOS/PCOD

Normally, symptoms of PCOS start appearing from the onset of menarche in a woman. However, range and severity of PCOS varies from women to women along with variation in symptoms.

Symptoms of PCOS

Nonetheless, there are certain common symptoms of PCOS experienced by almost every PCOS women apart from the ones who have Occult PCOS. The classic symptoms of PCOS experienced by most women with PCOS/PCOD are-

  • Irregular menstruation: Sometimes a woman with PCOS get only 8 periods per year and that too varying with wide gaps in between.
  • Anovulation (None or infrequent ovulation).
  • Weight gain and problems of weight loss.
  • Hirsutism: growth of excess facial and body hair. Most of the time they are thicker and darker and appear on chin, chest, belly and back.
  • Alopecia: Male pattern hair loss on scalp.
  • Depression and anxiety.
  • Acne and growth of pimples on face and body.

Please See: Occult PCOS is a type of PCOS, where the woman does not experience the classic symptoms of PCOS such as obesity, irregular menstruation, and hirsutism (growth of excess facial and body hair). This form of PCOS can only be detected when the woman faces multiple course of miscarriage due to superovulation (production of a large number of follicles).

Treatment Options For PCOS/PCOD

Although it may cause you more trouble, but complete cure of PCOS/PCOD is not possible. However, it can be managed to great levels, with a rigorous medicinal, dietary and lifestyle changes. Some of the ways through which PCOS/PCOD can be controlled are as discussed below-

1- Weight loss

This is suggested first and foremost to mostly all the women struggling with PCOS. It is an effective treatment for PCOS as PCOS as Weight gain is related in a vicious cycle to PCOS. With weight gain, PCOS increases and with increasing PCOS level in the body, further weight gain takes place. There are medications such as Metformin, which is suggested to PCOS women to help them control the insulin level in the body leading to weight loss. Along with this, a dietary regime with lean protein, omega-3 and folic acid, iron and vitamins (A, C, & D), are suggested to help women manage their weight.

2- Ovulation Induction

An ovulation is one of the most detectable symptoms of PCOS. It leads to infertility and it is very important for women with PCOS to ovulate regularly to control their PCOS levels. For this, drug such as Clomiphene Citrate and Letrozole are suggested. However, in some women these drugs do not effect well due to high level of testosterone. In such case, ovulation induction is done through HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) injections and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) shots.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin shots (HCG)

Moreover, there are patients who are resistant to above drugs and they can be treated only with GnRH analog (Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue) to induce ovulation successfully.

3- Surgery

Ovarian drilling which is known as Ovarian Cauterisation or LEOS (Laparoscopic Electrocauterisation of Ovarian Stroma) is one of the surgical procedures for PCOS. This is normally done for those who have abnormal ovarian tissue problems. Under this procedure, a laser is used to drill various holes through the ovarian capsule as a part of treatment. The removal of abnormal ovaria tissue restores the normal ovarian functions and help women with PCOS to ovulate successfully.

Can IVF Help In Pregnancy With PCOS?

IVF is the best treatment for women with PCOS to help conceive a baby. Ovulation induction is a treatment protocol under IVF, which fetches a very high success rate in case of women with PCOS/PCOD. However, there are measures to be taken before going for ovulation induction. Ovarian stimulation or ovulation induction is very harmful for women with Occult PCOS. In such cases, eggs die immature and fertilization and pregnancy never occurs.


Hope this article has been able to help youresolvingyour queries on PCOS and PCOD symptoms, causes and treatment. Follow Ela Woman to get regular updates on fertility health and treatments.

Recommended Reads

PCOD Problem and PCOD Remedies

Health Measures In PCOD

Weight Loss Diet Plan in PCOS, PCOD PCOS Indian Diet

Dr. Sailaja Vuppu

About The Author

IVF & Infertility Specialist, Gynecologic Surgeon Dr. Sailaja Vuppu
Vijayawada

Dr Sailaja Vuppu is an acclaimed Gynaecologist and Infertility Specialist in Sri Ramachandra Nagar, Vijayawada. She has completed 10 years on working as a gynaecologist and infertility specialist. Dr Sailaja Vuppu is right now practising at Rainbow Super Speciality Hospital for Women and Children. Her fields of expertise are Hysterectomy (Abdominal/Vaginal), Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and so on. Find her contact details on www.elawoman.com

SOURCES AND REFERENCES:

  1. Polycystic ovarian syndrome pcos sign and treatment PCOS, Elawoman - 2017
  2. Health measures in pcod sex hormones, Elawoman - 2017
  3. Signs of a healthy and normal menstrual cycle menstrual cycle, Elawoman - 2017
  4. Pcos or pcod cause, symptoms, treatment and more symptoms of PCOS, Elawoman - 2017
  5. Polycystic ovarian syndrome pcos sign and treatment ovulation, Elawoman - 2017
  6. What is in-vitro fertilization (ivf) and its needs IVF, Elawoman - 2017
  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos) causes, symptoms treatment and problems PCOD Problem and PCOD Remedies, Elawoman - 2017
  8. Health measures in pcod Health Measures In PCOD, Elawoman - 2017
  9. Weight loss diet plan in pcos, pcod pcos indian diet Weight Loss Diet Plan in PCOS, PCOD PCOS Indian Diet, Elawoman - 2017

5 Comments

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Neelam Joshi

I usually have PCOS symptoms like irregular cycles. Does having PCOS symptoms really mean I have PCOS?

Oct. 5, 2018, 3:17 p.m. 5.0

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Shanti Loper

Medicating, exercising and having healthy diet can also help in PCOS. Try avoiding smoking and drinking whenever possible. Also, start including green tea in your diet, it will really help a lot.

May 23, 2018, 5:31 p.m. 4.5

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Divya Khurana

Can I opt IUI treatment to conceive? I have PCOS for 2 years and I still have its medication.

Nov. 12, 2017, 1:10 p.m. 4.5

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Nitika Mehta

I guess laparoscopy is the treatment for endometriosis. In this, a small tube like instrument is inserted to look inside the uterus and following then endometrial tissues are removed.

Oct. 28, 2017, 3:06 p.m. 5.0

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Govinda Karumuri

My friend has been experiencing irregular periods, weight gain and acne. I think it's PCOS.

Oct. 14, 2017, 2:20 a.m. 4.5

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