Estimations suggest that one in seven couples encounter difficulties while trying to conceive. If you've been having regular unprotected sex for more than 12 months (or less, if you're over 35) and are still not pregnant, you may begin to wonder if you have infertility issues. The best thing to help you decide is to visit a doctor. Most fertility issues can be determined and a majority of them can be treated.
Female Infertility Causes:
1. Endometriosis: This condition, in which endometrial tissue (the uterine lining that sheds with each monthly period) grows outside the uterus, instead of inside it. Endometriosis is one of the major causes of infertility as it can cause blockage or damage in the fallopian tubes.
a- Symptoms: Pain in the lower abdomen, lower back, pelvis or vaginal area; pain during intercourse; constipation or painful bowel motion; cramps; irregular periods; infertility
b- Treatment:Laparoscopic surgery to remove abnormal tissue or to cure blockage in tubes; hormone therapy in the form of pill, injection or nasal spray; Fertility drugs with intrauterine insemination (IUI) for mild endometriosis or in vitro fertilisation (IVF treatment) for more severe cases.
c- Success rates: 81-84% women conceive after surgery in mild cases; 50% of women conceive after surgery in moderate cases and 25% of women conceive after surgery in sever cases; If untreated cases, IUI treatment has usual success rates if combined with fertility drugs. Untreated endometriosis usually has lower success rates than usual if endometriosis is left untreated.
2. Ovulation Dysfunction: Any condition (usually hormonal) that prevents the release of a mature egg from an ovary is referred as ovulation dysfunction.
a- Symptoms: Absent or irregular periods
b- Treatment:Ovulation-stimulating drugs such as clomifene and gonadotrophins, prolactin suppressants such as bromocriptine and IVF treatment with fertility drugs.
c- Success rates: About 70-85% of women ovulate and 23-28% conceive, depending on the drug and its dosage.
3. Poor egg quality: Eggs that become damaged or develop chromosomal abnormalities cannot sustain a pregnancy. This problem is usually age-related, as egg quality declines significantly in the late 30s and early 40s.
a- Symptoms: Difficulty conceiving and miscarriage.
b- Treatment:Egg or embryo donation, surrogacy or adoption.
c- Success rates: About 33% of women who use donor eggs or embryos in IVF treatment have a successful pregnancy.
4. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is caused by a hormone imbalance that disrupts ovulation. The ovaries develop many small cysts instead of ripening and maturing one egg each cycle.
a- Symptoms:Irregular periods, excessive hair growth, acne and weight gain.
b- Treatment:Changes in diet and lifestyle if overweight, ovulation-stimulating drugs such as clomifene, gonadotrophins, and IVF treatment.
c- Success rates: Lifestyle changes, weight loss of just five per cent can re-start regular ovulation in obese women. About 70-85% ovulate and 23-28% conceive depending on the drugs and its dosage.
5. Female tube blockages: Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes prevent eggs from reaching the uterus and the sperm from fusing with the egg. Leading causes include pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, and previous sterilisation surgery.
a- Symptoms:Pelvic pain; Painful urination; Abdominal pain; Fatigue
b- Treatment: Laparoscopic surgery to open tubes, or if tubes are too badly damaged to repair, IVF treatment is an option.
c- Success rates: Conception rates vary widely, from 20-70%, depending on the severity of the blockage and the amount of scar tissue that develops after surgery. In case of untreated femal tube blockage, IVF treatment has usual success rates.
Male Infertility Causes:
1. Male tube blockages: Any obstructions in the vas deferens or epididymis (the tubes that transport fertile sperm) result in male tube blockage. Infection, such as chlamydia or gonorrhoea, injury, or birth defects can also cause blockages. Varicoceles, enlarged veins in the scrotum, may also affect sperm production.
a- Symptoms: None. (Varicoceles occasionally cause pain or heaviness but are usually found during an examination.)
b- Treatment: Surgery to correct epididymal tube blockages.
c- Success rates: Depending on the problem and the surgical technique, 20-40% are able to get their partner pregnant within 12 to 18 months of surgery.
2. Sperm-related issues: Low or no sperm counts, poor sperm motility (the ability to move), and abnormally-shaped sperm can all cause infertility.
b- Treatment: Fertility drugs may boost sperm production. Other options include intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment) and donor insemination or injecting sperm directly into the egg (ICSI).
c- Success rates: Fertility drugs: About 40% of men with a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism are able to impregnate their partner after treatment and 56-70% of men with retrograde ejaculation can impregnate their partner; In untreated cases, 5-15% of women become pregnant per cycle via IUI treatment. ICSI has usual IVF success rates in untreated cases.
3. Sperm reaction: Some men have an immune reaction to semen, which causes them to produce anti-sperm antibodies that damage their sperm. This usually happens after vasectomy. About three percent of infertile men have an immune reaction to their own sperm.
b- Treatment: IVF treatment and ICSI.
c- Success rates:IVF and ICSI have usual success rates.
Other types of Infertility:
1. Unexplained infertility: This catch-all term is used when doctors can't find a cause for infertility after a full series of tests and assessments. Some experts think being significantly overweight or underweight, exercising excessively and even environmental toxins may be contributing factors.
a- Symptoms:None. It is a diagnosis of exclusion when results of tests for other causes of infertility are normal.
b- Treatment: At first expectant management is advised, which means continuing to try to conceive by having regular, unprotected sex. After two years of trying (including the year before fertility investigations), usually, IVF is suggested.
c- Success rates: Couples who keep trying have about a 15% chance of conceiving in the first year and 35% chance in the second year after fertility investigations. Age is an important factor. Young couples may have as high as 80% chance of conceiving within three years. IVF treatment has usual success rates for cases of unexplained fertility.
2. Combination infertility:The term used to describe couples who have both male and female infertility problems, or when one partner has more than one fertility problem.
a- Symptoms: Symptoms vary, depending on causes.
b- Treatment: Once all infertility causes are determined, appropriate treatments follow.
c- Success rates:Rates vary, depending on infertility causes.
IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) is an infertility treatment, which comes under Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). In IVF treatment, the mothers eggs from her ovaries are fertilized in a laboratory with the fathers sperm to create an embryo. Later on the conceived embryo is attached to the mothers uterus for normal development.
Test tube baby is a generic name for a baby who is conceived through ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology) procedure such as IVF (In vitro fertilization) or IVF with ICSI. Under IVF procedure, the mothers eggs from her ovaries are retrieved and then fertilized in a laboratory by the fathers sperm. After that, the conceived embryo is attached to the mothers uterus for the normal development of the baby.
IUI costs in Pune rangesfromINR 8,000 to INR 12,000 including medicines and disposables. The variation in IUI cost depends upon the type of IUI, whether its a natural cycle IUI or its an Induced Cycle IUI. Dr. Bharati Dhorepatil from Pune Fertility Centre and Dr. Parag Hitnalikar from Orion Hospital are among the top IUI specialists in Pune.
IUI costs in Hyderabad ranges from INR 10,000 to INR 18,000 including medicines and disposables. The cost of IUI treatment varies depending upon the type of IUI used, whether its a natural cycle IUI or its an Induced Cycle IUI. Dr. K Prameela Sekhar from Apollo Fertility and Dr. Sweta Agarwal from Southern Gem Hospital are among the top IUI specialists in Hyderabad.
IUI costs in Chennai rangesfrom INR 10,000 to INR 12,000 inclusive of all medicines and disposables. The IUI cost varies depending on the type of IUI, whether its a natural cycle IUI or its an Induced Cycle IUI. Dr. Dakshayani from Apollo Fertility and Dr. Rajalakshmi R from Morpheus Meenakshi International IVF Center are among the top IUI specialists in Chennai.
IUI costs in Bangalore ranges from INR 10,000 to INR 17,000 including medicines and disposables. The variation in IUI cost dependsupon the type of IUI, whether its a natural cycle IUI or its an Induced Cycle IUI. Dr. Haritha Rao from Morpheus Ayaansh Fertility Center and Dr. Asha S Vijay from GarbhaGudi IVF Center are among the top IUI specialists in Bangalore.
IUI costs in Mumbai ranges from INR 10,000 to INR 12,000 including medicines and disposables. The IUI cost variation depends upon the type of IUI, whether its a natural cycle IUI or its an Induced Cycle IUI. Dr. Anjali Deval from IVF Spring Fertility Center and Dr. Pinky Ronak Shah from Morpheus Fertility Center are among the top IUI specialists in Mumbai.
IUI costs in Gurgaon ranges from INR 8,000 to INR 16,000 inclusive of all medicines and disposables. Cost of IUI also depends upon the type of IUI, whether its a natural cycle IUI or its an Induced Cycle IUI. Dr. Neeru Thakral from Morpheus International Center and Dr. Poonam Jhamb are among the top IUI specialists in Gurgaon.
IUI costs in Noida ranges from INR 10,000 to INR 20,000 including medicines and disposables. Cost of IUI also depends on the IUI type, whether its a natural cycle IUI or its an Induced Cycle IUI. Dr. Shivani Sachdev Gour from SCI Healthcare Hospitals and Dr. Tulika Sinha are among the top IUI specialists in Noida.
Surrogacy is an agreement and method where a woman agrees to carry the pregnancy for other couple who will be biological parents of a newborn child. In the process of surrogacy, an embryo is transferred to the surrogate mother and she carries the baby till the birth.
Traditional Surrogacy is where the surrogate mother is the biological mother of the child because she uses her own egg that is fertilized by the intended fathers sperm. While in Gestational Surrogacy the woman carries the embryo of the intended couple through IVF process and is not biologically related to the child. She just acts as a carrier.
IUI costs in Delhi with highest success rates starts from Rs.10000 and goes up to Rs. 35000. The costs vary on the basis of the quality of treatment provided and thus have a direct implication on the success rates of the treatment. However, it is to keep in mind that, IUI costs in Rupees in Delhi may vary as per the type of IUI performed. For natural cycle IUI, the cost is minimum, however, for Induced Cycle IUI (medicine induced), IUI costs in rupees in Delhi starts from Rs. 18000and goes up to Rs.35000.
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