family planning

14 Types of Birth Control Methods and Effectiveness of each

  • 4.8   (8 Votes)
Medically Reviewed by Dr. Deepika Tiwari - MBBS on 13 Jul 2018 - Written by Dr. Somjate Manipalviratn - MBBS - Grammatically Approved by Dr. Kavita Jaggi Agrawal - MBBS

Birth control methods famously known as family planning methods are useful for couples who want to delay pregnancy. Some of the most effective birth control methods include Contraceptive Pills, Patches, IUD Copper T, Male and female condom, Tubal Ligation, Diaphragm, Cervical Cap, and Birth Control Implant.

Not all birth control methods are hormonal in nature, instead, some birth control methods are classified as hormonal and some are non-hormonal in nature. Contraception or birth control generally prevent pregnancy by interfering with your ovulation days or most fertile days. Below are some of the methods listed that are used to avoid pregnancy: 

1. PATCH: Patch is a 4cm x 4cm thin, beige color patch that you can wear on your body or generally it sticks on the skin, usually on arm, abdomen, back or waistline. The patch sticks to a woman's skin and keeps releasing the hormones like estrogen and progestin that prevents pregnancy and works as contraception into the bloodstream. Patch is 92% effective. 

2. PILLS:Pills are taken via mouth daily to prevent pregnancy, as there are cycles made on the pills that are segmented: hormonal and non-hormonal pills. One thing you all should know that the contraceptive pill does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. The effectiveness of contraceptive pills is 92%. You can rely on the birth control pills or contraceptive pills.

3. RING: Ring is a flexible, small vaginal ring that is used to prevent pregnancy. You have to put in the ring for 3 weeks, then take it out firmly. Then you have to wait for a week long to put a new one in a week later. The ring is just as effective as the pill when used as directed by a physician, and you don't have to get into the cumbersome process of taking it every day. Ring's effectiveness is 92%.

birth control methods, contraceptive pills

4. IUD Copper T: IUD Copper is a type of contraceptive intrauterine device, long-acting reversible contraception that can prevent you from getting pregnant for years and can be reversed once you want to get pregnant again and IUD is one of the most effective forms of birth control you can use. You need to know that, don't insert it itself, for using IUD Copper you have to visit a medical practitioner who will insert it and can be used for many years depending on the brand. IUD Copper effectiveness is 99%.

5. FEMALE CONDOM: A pouch type female condom is inserted into woman’s vagina during intercourse to prevent pregnancy and this can be done by women herself. Female condom does reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infection. The female condom can simply be used for vaginal and anal intercourse. Female condom effectiveness is 79%. This method is better than the oral contraceptive pills

6. CONDOM: It is the most known as a condom and a barrier which is rolled down on to a man’s penis before sex and once erected. It is a barrier to stop sperm and infection passing between two sexual partners. A condom can be used for vaginal and anal intercourse. Condom's effectiveness is 85%.

birth control pills, contraceptive pills

7. SPERMICIDES: Spermicide contains chemicals that stop the sperm from moving in and get a woman pregnant and are available in different forms like creams, film, foams and gels. You can use spermicide alone, or spermicide can be used with other birth control methods like a sponge to make them more effective in preventing pregnancy. Spermicide is effective 71%.

8. TUBAL LIGATION: Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure for sterilization in which procedure a woman's fallopian tubes are clamped and blocked or severed and sealed generally called tubes tied. Tubal Ligation effectiveness is 99.5%. This method is better than the oral contraceptive pills. 

9. SHOT: Shot is a type of small injection shot that a doctor gives you in the arm or buttocks. Each shot you get works for up to 12 to 14 weeks, but don't forget to get the shot once every 12 weeks to get its full protection to get protected against unwanted pregnancy. The shot is made of a hormone similar to progesterone. Shot effectiveness is 97%. It is better than the birth control pills. 

birth control methods, birth control pills

10. WITHDRAWAL: Withdrawl or pull-out method, is a method in which a man, during sexual intercourse immediately withdraws his penis from a woman's vagina prior he orgasm inside (and ejaculation), and then dump out his ejaculate (semen) away from the vagina. Withdrawl effectiveness is 73%. This method is better than the oral contraceptive pills. 

11. SPONGE: The sponge is a squishy porous foam object which is inserted into the vagina with spermicide before 3 hours of intercourse. Sponge contains spermicide to stop the sperm from getting inside as it comes in contact with the sponge. Sponge effectiveness is 75%. It is better than the birth control pills. 

12. IMPLANT: An implant the size of a cardboard matchstick is inserted or implanted underneath the skin of the upper arm. This birth control implant method will help protect against pregnancy for up to 3 years. Its effectiveness is more than 99%. It is better than the birth control pills. 

13. DIAPHRAGM: Diaphragm is a thin silicone dome-shaped with a springy and flexible rim inserted into the vagina that fits over the cervix and is held in place by vaginal muscles. A diaphragm holds spermicide in place. Spermicide in the diaphragm kills sperm, preventing fertilization and work against pregnancy. Diaphragm effectiveness is 84%.

14. CERVICAL CAP: The cervical cap is a soft, thimble-shaped cup made out of silicone or latex fabrics. It fits exactly over the cervix (where the uterus opens into the vagina). It's designed to block sperm from reaching the woman's egg. Cervical cap effectiveness is 75%.

If we talk of emergency contraceptives, the market is flooded with emergency oral contraceptive pills which can have serious negative side effects on fertility. Instead of that, IUD can also be used as an emergency contraceptive to prevent unwanted pregnancy.


Dr. Somjate Manipalviratn

Written by

Cryopreservation Specialist, Gynecologist

Dr. Somjate Manipalviratn MD is an infertility and cryopreservation specialist presently practicing at Jetanin Institute for Assisted Reproduction, Lumpinee, Bangkok and Superior ART. Dr. Somjate Manipalviratn is presently specializing in Fertility preservation, Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, IVF and IUI procedures. For more information regarding Dr. Somjate Manipalviratn, visit


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Kavita Pathak

My doctor suggested me to opt implant birth control method as I am too sensitive to take any pills. It work well and I don't have any heavy side-effects except weight gain.

Oct. 13, 2018, 11:48 a.m. 4.5


Kelvin crum

I am totally allergic to latex, so I don't use any condoms. Every girl should know if they are allergic to latex or not before using them.

Oct. 12, 2018, 9:45 p.m. 5.0



For me, patches work the best, no side effects and fully reliable. I usually get confused between diaphragm and V-rings. Both have the same working module, please tell me the difference between them.

Feb. 17, 2018, 4:42 p.m. 5.0


Rohit Singla

I usually rely on hormonal contraceptive methods, but it cannot protect you from STDs. All of these methods should be executed with condoms for better results.

Sept. 12, 2017, 2:25 p.m. 4.5


Sakshi Panwar

There are many contraceptive pills available in the market. There are mini pills that contain only one hormone called progestin. Estrogen is not present in the mini pills and they are prescribed to breastfeeding mothers and the one who are allergic to estrogen.

Aug. 23, 2017, 12:05 p.m. 5.0


Rakshit Patel

Hormonal contraceptives not only prevent pregnancy by changing the lining of the womb but they even thicken the cervical mucus so that any sperm cannot survive there. However, it might take some time to get back into the normal cycle while using birth control pills.

Aug. 23, 2017, 12:03 p.m. 4.5


Rakshita Akula

All other birth control method turns more effective if they are used with condoms. Condoms are the only birth control method that prevent from sexually transmitted diseases.

Aug. 23, 2017, 11:17 a.m. 4.5


Kishore K Kalra

After all these birth control methods, we have the problem of overpopulation. Every human should know about these measures. Must read and share.

June 11, 2017, 3:23 p.m. 5.0

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