Worldwide research on IUD reports around 40% of the women preferring IUD to any other birth control contraception. IUD is a small device that is inserted inside the uterus of a woman, which helps in preventing pregnancy. It is a small and flexible T shaped plastic device that is attached with a plastic string at the end for effective placement and removal. This plastic string hangs down through the cervix to the vagina. However, it can’t be felt by any of the partners and is completely harmless.
Types of IUD
1- Hormonal IUD- Three common brands available in the market are Liletta, Mirena and Skyla.
2- Copper IUD- Paraguard is one of the profusely used brand of copper IUD or copper t in general.
How does IUD work: mechanism behind IUD?
IUDs work primarily by preventing the sperm from fertilizing the egg released from ovaries. Both of the IUD types kill or damage the sperm trying to reach the egg. The hormonal IUD prevents fertilization by killing the sperm by producing thick mucus in the cervix. It also makes the uterus lining or endometrium very thin which hampers a fertilized egg to implant and grow.
On the other hand, the copper IUD such as copper-t releases toxic materials and make the uterus and fallopian tubes producing a toxic fluid, which kills sperm. This fluid is composed of white blood cells, prostaglandins, copper ions and enzymes.
Things you need to know before IUD insertion
1- If you experience a painful period, IUD is a strict no-no.
2- You should not be anaemic
3- You should not have any pelvic infection/s.
4- If your uterus has certain issues such as fibroids, PCOS etc, then please avoid IUD.
5- If you have previous problems with IUD insertion, then don't try it again.
How IUD is inserted?
IUD can be inserted at any time with the help of a medical professional given the condition that you are not pregnant and that you are not facing any pelvic infections. The IUD is inserted in the uterus and the procedure lasts for up to three hours depending upon your health conditions. Sometimes, some women need local anaesthesia near the cervix to get it inserted, however, it is not a necessary condition for IUD insertion.
Things to expect after IUD insertion
1- Spotting of blood or cramps in abdominal.
2- Avoiding vaginal sex or use of any sex toys or sanitary pads, tampons etc. as it creates suffocation in the vagina affecting cervix.
3- Regular check up for six weeks with at least a visit per week.
How to remove?
IUD depending on its type lasts upto 5-7 years. However, in case you are planning a baby before this period, you can get it removed earlier. However, you should not try to remove IUD at home and need to take help of medical professional who will remove the IUD with certain medical device for your safety.
Cost of IUD around the Globe
In developing countries, most of the IUD such as copper t comes free with an insertion as part of Government initiatives. However the cost of an IUD varies between US $100 to US $1000 based on the country you belong to. Off course the other channel are the health insurances and mediclaims that can make your IUD free of cost however they need a lot of paper work to be done. In India, copper t can be purchased for less than INR 500 however still based on longevity there are IUD brands costing upwards of INR 5000.
Benefits/ effectiveness of IUD
1- Highly effective in preventing pregnancy with a 99% success rate.
2- IUDs start working immediately once inserted.
3- They are reversible and one can keep it as long as they want with a maximum period of 10 years.
4- IUDs do not impact your fertility. You can return immediately and start conceiving (TTC) after IUD removal.
5- IUD reduces the problem of heavy bleeding for some women who experience such high episodes during menstruation.
6- IUD prevents endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial cancer
7- Ectopic pregnancy can be avoided with IUDs
8- IUD does not cause weight gain
IUDs may introduce you to the risk of menstrual cramps or spotting from time to time if care is not taken properly.
2- Risk of perforation
IUDs pose the risk of perforation where the IUD gets stuck in the uterus, which can severely abuse uterus lining and overall uterus health.
3- Risk of expulsion
Many women report - pushing out of IUD just after insertion. However it has been seen that such things happen when IUDs have not been inserted properly.
4- IUD leads to uncomfortable sex
There are cases where men complain about uneasiness during sex with a woman using an IUD.
5- Risks of hormonal IUDs
Hormonal IUDs at times can lead to growth of ovarian cysts, breast tenderness, mood swings, tenderness/numbness in breasts, acne etc.
6- Risks of Copper IUDs
In some cases it has been found that Copper IUDs such as copper t may lead to many infections in the uterus like swelling of the ovaries, irregular period, accidental spotting, severe menstrual cramps etc.
Hope you like the information we have provided above. Please follow ELA Woman blogs for more updates on birth control methods and their effectiveness.
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The pregnancy rate for failed Copper - T lies between 1 to 3 percent. Gynecologists can surgically remove the copper T using ultrasound so that it does not impact the ongoing pregnancy. In complicated situations, pregnancy has to be terminated for the removal of copper T.
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